JAMA Dermatology is an international, peer-reviewed, dermatologic journal, with distribution to readers in more than 95 countries. Manuscripts submitted to JAMA Dermatology should meet the following criteria: the material is original; the writing is clear; the study methods are appropriate; the data are valid; the conclusions are reasonable and supported by the data; the information is important; and the topic has general clinical dermatology relevance. From these basic criteria, we assess a paper’s eligibility for publication. We receive approximately 1600 papers each year, but publish only about 21% of unsolicited manuscripts. Because of this competition for space in JAMA Dermatology, we advise authors to follow these instructions and to keep papers as brief as possible while still meeting the quality criteria described herein.
June K. Robinson, MD, Editor, JAMA Dermatology, 132 E Delaware Pl, #5806, Chicago, IL 60611 USA; email: email@example.com. Send inquiries about submitting manuscripts by email. Manuscripts may be submitted online at http://manuscripts.jamaderm.com.
Editorial Policies for Authors
Most of JAMA Dermatology’s editorial policies for authors are summarized in these instructions. Citations and links to the AMA Manual of Style: A Guide for Authors and Editors1 and other publications with additional information are also provided.
Authorship Criteria and Contributions and Authorship Form
Please do not send authorship forms to the editorial office before you have received an email with your personalized form. Authorship forms will be sent to authors for completion after manuscripts have been submitted.
Each author should have participated sufficiently in the work to take public responsibility for appropriate portions of the content.1 One or more authors should take responsibility for the integrity of the work as a whole, from inception to published article. According to the guidelines of the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE), as revised in 2013,2 authorship credit should be based on the following 4 criteria: (1) substantial contributions to conception or design of the work, or the acquisition, analysis, or interpretation of data for the work; and (2) drafting of the work or revising it critically for important intellectual content; and (3) final approval of the version to be published; and (4) agreement to be accountable for all aspects of the work in ensuring that questions related to the accuracy or integrity of any part of the work are appropriately investigated and resolved.
Each author should be accountable for the parts of the work he or she has done. In addition, each author should be able to identify which coauthors are responsible for specific other parts of the work and should have confidence in the integrity of the contributions of any coauthors.
All those designated as authors should meet all 4 criteria for authorship, and all who meet the 4 criteria should be identified as authors. Those who do not meet all four criteria should be acknowledged (see Acknowledgment Section.)
All authors (ie, the corresponding author and each coauthor) must read, complete, and submit an electronic Authorship Form with required statements on Authorship Responsibility, Criteria, and Contributions; Confirmation of Reporting Conflicts of Interest and Funding; and Publishing Agreement. In addition, authors are required to identify their contributions to the work described in the manuscript.1(pp128-133) An email with links to the Authorship Forms will be sent to authors for completion after manuscripts have been submitted (see sample Authorship Form).
For reports of original data and systematic reviews, authors’ specific contributions will be published in the Acknowledgment section (see Manuscript Preparation and Submission Requirements, Acknowledgment Section).1 All other persons who have made substantial contributions to the work reported in this manuscript (eg, data collection, analysis, and writing or editing assistance) but who do not fulfill the authorship criteria should be named with their specific contributions in an Acknowledgment in the manuscript. Written permission to include the names of individuals in the Acknowledgment section must be obtained (see Manuscript Preparation and Submission Requirements, Acknowledgment Section).
The authors also must certify that the manuscript represents valid work and that neither this manuscript nor one with substantially similar content under their authorship has been published or is being considered for publication elsewhere (see also Duplicate/Previous Publication or Submission).1 Authors of manuscripts reporting original data or systematic reviews must provide an access to data statement from at least 1 named author, often the corresponding author (see also Data Access and Responsibility). If requested, authors should be prepared to provide the data and must cooperate fully in obtaining and providing the data on which the manuscript is based for examination by the editors or their assignees.
Role of the Corresponding Author
The corresponding author (or coauthor designee) will serve on behalf of all coauthors as the primary correspondent with the editorial office during the submission and review process. If the manuscript is accepted, the corresponding author will review an edited manuscript and proof, make decisions regarding release of information in the manuscript to the news media, federal agencies, or both, and will be identified as the corresponding author in the published article. The corresponding author is responsible for ensuring that the Acknowledgment section of the manuscript is complete (see Acknowledgment Section) and is responsible for ensuring that the conflict of interest disclosures reported in the Acknowledgment section of the manuscript are accurate, up-to-date, and consistent with the information provided in each author’s Authorship Form (see Conflicts of Interest and Financial Disclosures). The corresponding author must also complete the Acknowledgment statement part of the Authorship Form confirming that all persons who have contributed substantially but who are not authors are identified in the Acknowledgment section and that written permission from each person acknowledged has been obtained (see sample Authorship Form and Acknowledgment Section for more details).
Changes in Authorship
Authors should determine the order of authorship among themselves and should settle any disagreements among themselves before submitting their manuscripts. Changes in authorship (ie, order, addition, and deletion of authors) should be discussed and approved by all authors. Any requests for such changes in authorship after initial manuscript submission and before publication should be explained in writing to the editor in a letter or email from all authors.
If authorship is attributed to a group (either solely or in addition to 1 or more individual authors), all members of the group must meet the full criteria and requirements for authorship described above, and all group member authors must complete the Authorship Form.3 If all members of a group do not meet all authorship criteria, a group must designate at least 1 or more individuals as authors or members of a writing group who meet full authorship criteria and requirements and who will take responsibility for the group.1,3 Other group members who do not meet the criteria for authorship may be listed as collaborators in the Acknowledgment. Both authors and collaborators will be noted in published articles and in PubMed records. Group authors may not be included on articles with limited numbers of authors.
Conflicts of Interest and Financial Disclosures
A conflict of interest may exist when an author (or the author’s institution or employer) has financial or personal relationships that could inappropriately influence (or bias) the author’s decisions, work, or manuscript. All authors are required to disclose potential conflicts of interest, including specific financial interests relevant to the subject of their manuscript, in the Acknowledgment section of the manuscript,1 and to declare whether they have or do not have any conflicts of interest in the JAMA Dermatology Authorship Form. This form will be requested after a manuscript has been submitted, but authors also should include conflict of interest disclosures in the Acknowledgment section of the submitted manuscript.
Definitions and Terms of Conflicts of Interest Disclosures
Authors are expected to provide detailed information about all relevant financial interests, activities, and relationships, and affiliations (other than those affiliations listed in the title page of the manuscript) including, but not limited to, employment, affiliation, funding and grants received or pending, consultancies, honoraria or payment, speakers’ bureaus, stock ownership or options, expert testimony, royalties, donation of medical equipment, or patents planned, pending, or issued. Following the guidelines of the ICMJE,2 the definitions and terms of such disclosures should include
- Any potential conflicts of interest “involving the work under consideration for publication” (during the time involving the work, from initial conception and planning to present),
- Any “relevant financial activities outside the submitted work” (over the 3 years prior to submission), and
- Any “other relationships or activities that readers could perceive to have influenced, or that give the appearance of potentially influencing” what is written in the submitted work (based on all relationships that were present during the 3 years prior to submission).
Authors without conflicts of interest, including relevant financial interests, activities, relationships, and affiliations, should include a statement of no such interests in the Acknowledgment section of the manuscript. Authors should err on the side of full disclosure and should contact the editorial office by email if they have questions or concerns.
Although many universities and other institutions have established policies and thresholds for reporting financial interests and other conflicts of interest, the JAMA Network journals require complete disclosure of all relevant financial relationships and potential financial conflicts of interest, regardless of amount or value. For example, authors of a manuscript about psoriasis should report all financial relationships they have with all manufacturers and owners of products, devices, tests, and services used in the management of psoriasis, not only those relationships with entities whose specific products, devices, tests, and services are mentioned in the manuscript. If authors are uncertain about what might constitute a potential financial conflict of interest or relationship, they should contact the editorial office by email.
For all accepted manuscripts, the corresponding author will have been asked to confirm that each coauthor’s disclosures of conflicts of interest and relevant financial interests, activities, relationships, and affiliations and declarations of no such interests are accurate, up-to-date, and consistent with the disclosures reported in the Acknowledgment section of the manuscript because this information will be published in the Acknowledgement section of the article. Decisions about whether financial information provided by authors should be published, and thereby disclosed to readers, are usually straightforward. Although Editors are willing to discuss disclosure of specific financial information with authors, the JAMA Network journals’ policy is one of complete disclosure of all relevant financial interests, including relevant financial interests, activities, relationships, and affiliations (other than those affiliations listed in the title page of the manuscript). The policy requiring disclosure of conflicts of interest applies for all manuscript submissions, including letters to the editor. If an author’s disclosure of potential conflicts of interest is determined to be inaccurate or incomplete after publication, a correction will be published to rectify the original published disclosure statement, and additional action may be taken as necessary.
All financial and material support (eg, grant identification, transfer agreement) for the research and the work should be clearly and completely identified in an Acknowledgment section of the manuscript. The specific role of the funding organization or sponsor in each of the following should be specified: “design and conduct of the study; collection, management, analysis, and interpretation of the data; preparation, review, or approval of the manuscript; and decision to submit the manuscript for publication.”
Data Access, Responsibility, and Analysis
For reports (regardless of funding source) containing original data, at least 1 named author (eg, the principal investigator), and no more than 2 authors, must indicate that he or she “had full access to all the data in the study and takes responsibility for the integrity of the data and the accuracy of the data analysis.” This exact statement should be included in the Acknowledgment section at the end of the manuscript. Modified statements or generic statements indicating that all authors had such access are not acceptable. In addition, for all reports containing original data, the names and affiliations of all authors (or other individuals) who conducted and are responsible for the data analysis must be indicated in the Acknowledgment section of the manuscript. If the individual who conducted the analysis is not named as an author, a detailed explanation of his/her contributions and reasons for his/her involvement with the data analysis should be included.
The “Acknowledgment section” is the general term for the list of contributions, disclosures, credits, and other information included at the end of the text of a manuscript but before the references. The Acknowledgment section includes authors’ contributions (see Template for Author Attribution and Conflict of Interest Disclosure); information on author access to data; disclosure of potential conflicts of interest, including financial interests, activities, relationships, and affiliations; sources of funding and support; an explanation of the role of funder(s)/sponsor(s); names, degrees, and affiliations of participants in a large study or other group (ie, collaborators); any important disclaimers; information on previous presentation of the information reported in the manuscript; and the contributions, names, degrees, affiliations, and indication if compensation has been received for all persons who have made substantial contributions to the work but who are not authors.1
All other persons who have made substantial contributions to the work reported in the manuscript (eg, data collection, analysis, and writing or editing assistance) but who do not fulfill the authorship criteria should be named with their specific contributions in an Acknowledgment section in the manuscript.
Authors must obtain written permission to include the names of all individuals included in the Acknowledgment section, and the corresponding author must confirm that such permission has been obtained in the Authorship Form (see sample Authorship Form).
Duplicate/Previous Publication or Submission
Manuscripts are considered with the understanding that they have not been published previously, in total or in part (eg, cases, figures, or tables), in print or electronic format and are not under consideration by another publication or electronic medium. Include copies of related or possibly duplicative material that has been previously published or is currently being considered elsewhere1(pp148-155),4 (see Previous or Planned Meeting Presentation or Release of Information).
Timeliness of Data
Research reports submitted to JAMA Dermatology should be timely and current and should be based on data collected as recently as possible. Manuscripts based on data from randomized clinical trials should be reported as soon as possible after the trial has ended, ideally within 1 year after follow-up has been completed. For cohort studies, the date of final follow-up should be no more than 5 years before manuscript submission. Likewise, data used in case-control or cross-sectional studies should have been collected as recently as possible, but no more than 5 years before manuscript submission. Because manuscripts in which the most recent data have been collected more than 5 years ago (ie, prior to 2011) ordinarily will receive lower priority for publication, authors of such manuscripts should provide a detailed explanation of the relevance of the information in light of current knowledge and medical practice.
The ICMJE defines a clinical trial as any research project that prospectively assigns human participants to intervention or comparison groups to study the cause-and-effect relationship between an intervention and a health outcome.2 Interventions include but are not limited to drugs, surgical procedures, devices, behavioral treatments, process-of-care changes, and the like. All manuscripts reporting clinical trials, including those limited to secondary exploratory or post hoc analysis of trial outcomes, must include a copy of the trial protocol including the complete statistical analysis plan (see Protocols), a flow diagram, and a completed trial checklist (see CONSORT Flow Diagram and Checklist). All clinical trials must be registered at an appropriate online public registry (see Trial Registration requirements). These and other requirements for manuscript preparation are detailed in Categories of Articles, Clinical Trial. For additional guidance on reporting cluster trials, noninferiority and equivalence trials, pragmatic trials, and trials with patient-reported outcomes, see Extensions of the CONSORT Statement.
In concert with the ICMJE, JAMA Dermatology will require, as a condition of consideration for publication, registration of all trials in a public trials registry that is acceptable to the ICMJE (ie, the registry must be owned by a not-for-profit entity, be publicly accessible, and require the minimum registration data set as described by the ICMJE).2,5,6 Acceptable trial registries include the following and others are listed at http://www.icmje.org:
For this purpose, a clinical trial is any research project that prospectively assigns human participants to intervention or comparison groups to study the cause-and-effect relationship between an intervention and a health outcome. All clinical trials, regardless of when they were completed, and secondary analyses of original clinical trials must be registered before submission of a manuscript based on the trial. Trials must be registered at or before the onset of patient enrollment. Please note: for clinical trial starting patient enrollment after July 2005, trials must have been registered before onset of patient enrollment. For trials that began before July 2005 but that were not registered before September 13, 2005, trials must have been registered before journal submission. Studies designed for other purposes, such as to study pharmacokinetics or major toxicity (eg, phase 1 trials), are exempt. The trial registry name and URL and the registration number should be included at the end of the abstract and also in the space provided on the online manuscript submission form. See also the editorial by Callen and Robinson.7
Authors of manuscripts reporting clinical trials must submit trial protocols (including the complete statistical analysis plan) along with their manuscripts. If the manuscript is accepted, the protocol will be published as an online supplement.
CONSORT Flow Diagram and Checklist:
Manuscripts reporting the results of randomized trials must include the CONSORT Flow Diagram showing the progress of patients throughout the trial (see Figure). The CONSORT checklist also should be completed and submitted with the manuscript.
Manuscripts reporting survey data, such as studies involving patients, clinicians, the public, or others, should report data collected as recently as possible, ideally within the past 2 years. Survey studies should have sufficient response rates (generally at least 60%) and appropriate characterization of nonresponders to ensure that nonresponse bias does not threaten the validity of the findings. For most surveys, such as those conducted by telephone, personal interviews (eg, drawn from a sample of households), mail, email, or via the web, authors are encouraged to report the survey outcome rates using standard definitions and metrics, such as those proposed by the American Association for Public Opinion Research.4 In addition, authors should submit the survey instrument if possible as an online-only supplementary file (see Online-Only Supplements and Multimedia).
Reports of Diagnostic Tests
These manuscripts may be classified as Original Investigations or Research Letters. Authors of reports of diagnostic tests are encouraged to submit the STARD flow diagram and checklist.
Reports of Cost-effectiveness Analyses and Decision Analyses
These manuscripts may be classified as Original Investigations or Research Letters. Authors of reports of cost-effectiveness analyses and decision analyses must submit a copy of the decision tree comprising their model. This is for editorial evaluation and review, not necessarily for publication, unless it is included in the body of the manuscript. This should be submitted as a supplemental file, not for publication.
If race and/or ethnicity is reported, indicate in the Methods section who classified individuals as to race/ethnicity, the classifications, and whether the options were defined by the investigator or the participant. Explain why race and/or ethnicity was assessed in the study.8
Report the sex distribution of study participants or samples in the Methods section, including studies of humans, tissues, cells, or animals. If only one sex is reported, or included in the study, explain why the other sex is not reported or included, except for studies of diseases/disorders that only affect males (eg, prostate disease) or females (eg, ovarian disease).
Ethical Approval of Studies and Informed Consent
For all manuscripts reporting data from studies involving human participants, formal review and approval, or formal review and waiver, by an appropriate institutional review board or ethics committee is required and should be described in the Methods section.1(p226) For those investigators who do not have formal ethics review committees, the principles outlined in the Declaration of Helsinki should be followed.9 For investigations of humans, state in the Methods section the manner in which informed consent was obtained from the study participants (ie, oral or written) and whether participants received a stipend. Editors may request that authors provide documentation of the formal review and recommendation from the institutional review board or ethics committee responsible for oversight of the study. (See also the editorial by Callen and Robinson.10)
Identification of Patients in Descriptions, Photographs, Video, and Pedigrees
A signed statement of informed consent to publish (in print and online) patient descriptions, photographs, video, and pedigrees should be obtained from all persons (parents or legal guardians for minors) who can be identified (including by the patients themselves) in such written descriptions, photographs, video, or pedigrees and should be submitted with the manuscript and indicated in the Acknowledgment section on the Title Pages. Such persons should be offered the opportunity to see the manuscript before submission.1(p229-232) Omitting data or making data less specific to deidentify patients is acceptable, but changing any such data are not acceptable. Only those details essential for understanding and interpreting a specific case report or case series should be provided. Although the degree of specificity needed will depend on the context of what is being reported, specific ages, race/ethnicity, and other sociodemographic details should be presented only if clinically or scientifically relevant and important.1 Cropping of photographs to remove identifiable personal features that are not essential to the clinical message may be permitted as long as the photographs are not otherwise altered. Please do not submit masked photographs of patients. Patients’ initials or other personal identifiers may not appear in an image.
Patient Permission Form:
The Patient Consent form for publication of identifying material is available here.
Personal Communications and Unpublished Data
A signed statement of permission should be included from each individual identified as a source of information in a personal communication or as a source for unpublished data, and the date of communication and whether the communication was written or oral should be specified.1(p199) Personal communications should not be included in the list of references.
Manuscripts That Pose Security Risks
Authors and reviewers are expected to notify editors if a manuscript could be considered to report research of concern for a dual use (ie, research that could be misused by others to pose a threat to public health and safety, agriculture, plants, animals, the environment, or material).11 The editor in chief will evaluate manuscripts that report potential dual use research of concern and, if necessary, consult additional reviewers.
Previous or Planned Meeting Presentation or Release of Information
A complete manuscript following presentation at a meeting or publication of preliminary findings elsewhere (eg, an abstract) is eligible for consideration for publication. Authors considering presenting or planning to present the work at an upcoming scientific meeting should indicate the name and date of the meeting on the manuscript submission form. For accepted papers, the editors may be able to coordinate publication with the meeting presentation. Authors of submitted papers, including those accepted but not yet published, should not disclose the status of such papers during such presentations that occur before the work is published. Authors who present information contained in a manuscript that is under consideration by the JAMA Network during scientific or clinical meetings should not distribute complete reports (ie, copies of manuscripts) or full data presented as tables and figures to conference attendees or journalists. Publication of abstracts in print and online conference proceedings, as well as posting of slides or videos from the scientific presentation on the meeting website, is acceptable. The abstract publication must be cited in the manuscript. However, for manuscripts under consideration by the JAMA Network, publication of full reports in proceedings or online, issuing detailed news releases reporting the results of the study, or participation in formal news conferences will jeopardize chances for publication of the submitted manuscript in the JAMA Network. Media coverage of presentations at scientific meetings will not jeopardize consideration, but direct release of information through press releases or news media briefings may preclude consideration by the JAMA Network. Rare instances of papers reporting public health emergencies should be discussed with the editor. Authors submitting manuscripts or letters to the editor regarding adverse drug or medical device reactions, reportable diseases, etc, should also report this information to the relevant government agency.
All information regarding the content and publication date of accepted manuscripts is strictly confidential. Unauthorized prepublication release of accepted manuscripts and information about planned publication date may result in rescinding the acceptance and rejecting the paper. This policy applies to all categories of articles. Information contained in or about accepted articles cannot appear in print, audio, video, or digital form or be released by the news media until the article is published.
All authors are required to complete and submit a Publishing Agreement that is part of the JAMA Dermatology electronic Authorship Form. In this agreement, authors will transfer copyright; or indicate that they are employed by a federal government; or indicate that they are an employee of an institution that considers the work in the manuscript a work for hire, in which case an authorized representative of that institution will assign copyright on the author’s behalf.
All research articles are made free access online 12 months after publication on the journal website. All articles are made free access on The JAMA Network Reader on the day of publication.
Depositing Research Manuscripts With an Approved Public Repository
All JAMA Dermatology articles reporting original research are made freely available 12 months after publication, subject to certain conditions (see Public Access). The JAMA Networks’ editors and publishers believe that the public is best served by accessing the freely available research articles on the journal site to ensure access to the final published version, any corrections, and related web features. However, some funding organizations require that authors of manuscripts reporting research deposit those manuscripts with an approved public repository, such as PubMed Central or Europe PubMed Central. Authors have the JAMA Network’s permission to deposit manuscripts with an approved repository on the following conditions:
- 1. Permission is granted only for manuscripts reporting research funded by not-for-profit organizations to be deposited in not-for-profit, publicly available repositories.
- 2. Permission is granted to post either the accepted version of the submitted manuscript or a copy of the published article.
- 3. Authors must ensure that the posted content links back to the published article on the JAMA Network website to provide readers with access to the final version plus any corrections and letters, as well as the article-related features only available on the JAMA Network website.
- 4. Authors who submit their manuscripts to an approved public repository, such as PubMed Central or Europe PubMed Central, must indicate that the content may not be made available to the public sooner than 12 months after publication in the JAMA Network. If authors adhere to these requirements, they may submit the final accepted version of the manuscript or a published copy of the article to the repository, if and only if the repository ensures that the deposited manuscript will not be made available to the public during the 12-month embargo following publication in the JAMA Network.
The published article is protected by copyright at the time of publication and thereafter (see JAMA Network Conditions of Use). This research access policy does not include permission to use the JAMA Network logo and trademarks. The JAMA Network article of record is the final published version; the JAMA Network assumes no responsibility for earlier versions because substantive changes and corrections may occur during the postacceptance editing process. Authors may contact the JAMA Network with any questions at firstname.lastname@example.org.
Published manuscripts become the permanent property of the American Medical Association (AMA) and may not be published elsewhere without written permission. Unauthorized use of the JAMA Network name, logo, or any content for commercial purposes or to promote commercial goods and services (in any format, including print, video, audio, and digital) is not permitted by the JAMA Network or the AMA.
Editorial Review and Publication
Authors will be sent notifications of the receipt of manuscripts and editorial decisions by email. During the review process, authors can check the status of their submitted manuscript via the online manuscript submission and review system.
Editorial and Peer Review
All submitted manuscripts are reviewed initially by a JAMA Dermatology editor. Manuscripts are evaluated according to the following criteria: material is original and timely, writing is clear, study methods are appropriate, data are valid, conclusions are reasonable and supported by the data, and information is important. From these basic criteria, the editors assess a paper’s eligibility for publication. Manuscripts with insufficient priority for publication are rejected promptly. Other manuscripts are sent to expert consultants for peer review. Peer reviewer identities are kept confidential, but author identities are made known to reviewers. The existence of a manuscript under review is not revealed to anyone other than peer reviewers and editorial staff. Peer reviewers are required to maintain confidentiality about the manuscripts they review and must not divulge any information about a specific manuscript or its content to any third party without prior permission from the journal editors. Information from submitted manuscripts may be systematically collected and analyzed as part of research to improve the quality of the editorial or peer review process. Identifying information remains confidential. Reviews and decisions on manuscripts in which the editor or an associate editor is a coauthor are managed independently by an associate editor or editor from another institution. Final decisions regarding manuscript publication are made by an Editor, who does not have any relevant conflicts of interest.
Accepted manuscripts are copyedited according AMA Manual of Style, 10th edition,1 and returned to the corresponding author (or his/her designee) for approval. Authors are responsible for all statements made in their work, including changes made during editing and production that are authorized by the corresponding author.
If accepted for publication, all articles are generally published Online First and then again in a print/online issue.
Requests to publish corrections should be sent to the editorial office. Corrections are reviewed by editors and authors, published promptly, and linked online to the original article.
Reprints and e-prints may be ordered online at www.ama-authorreprints.com when the edited manuscript is sent for approval to the corresponding author.
Categories of Articles
JAMA Dermatology publishes Original Investigations, Evidence-Based Reviews, Special Communications, Viewpoints, Letters, and other categories of articles. Topics of interest include all subjects that are related to the practice of dermatology and the betterment of public dermatologic health worldwide. The most frequently published types of articles are described herein.
These reports typically include randomized trials (see Clinical Trial), intervention studies, cohort studies, case-control studies, epidemiologic assessments, other observational studies, surveys with high response rates (see Survey Research), cost-effectiveness analyses and decision analyses (see Reports of Cost-effectiveness Analyses and Decision Analyses), and studies of screening and diagnostic tests (see Reports of Diagnostic Tests). Each manuscript should clearly state an objective or hypothesis; the design and methods (including the study setting and dates, patients or participants with inclusion and exclusion criteria and/or participation or response rates, or data sources, and how these were selected for the study); the essential features of any interventions; the main outcome measures; the main results of the study; a discussion section placing the results in context with the published literature and addressing study limitations; and the conclusions and relevant implications for clinical practice or health policy. Data included in research reports must be original and should be as timely and current as possible (see Timeliness of Data). A structured abstract is required; for more information, see instructions for preparing structured Abstracts for Reports of Original Data. The text should include the full name, academic degrees, and a single institutional affiliation for each author and the email address for the corresponding author. Other persons who have contributed to the study may be indicated in an Acknowledgment, with their permission, including their academic degrees, affiliation, contribution to the study, and an indication if compensation was received for their role. Please provide a word count on the title page. Maximum length: 3000 words of text (not including acknowledgment, abstract, tables, figures, references, and online-only material) with no more than a total of 5 tables and/or figures.
The ICMJE defines a clinical trial as any research project that prospectively assigns human participants to intervention or comparison groups to study the cause-and-effect relationship between an intervention and a health outcome. Interventions include but are not limited to drugs, surgical procedures, devices, behavioral treatments, process-of-care changes, and the like. All manuscripts reporting clinical trials, including those limited to secondary exploratory or post hoc anaysis of trial outcomes, must include a copy of the trial protocol including the complete statistical analysis plan (see Protocols), a flow diagram (Figure), and a completed trial checklist (see CONSORT Flow Diagram and Checklist). All clinical trials must be registered at an appropriate online public registry (see Trial Registration requirements).
Figure. Profile of a Randomized Clinical Trial
For additional guidance on preparing manuscripts reporting cluster trials, noninferiority and equivalence trials, and pragmatic trials, see Extensions of the CONSORT Statement. Each manuscript should clearly state an objective or hypothesis; the design and methods (including the study setting and dates, patients or participants with inclusion and exclusion criteria, or data sources, and how these were selected for the study); the essential features of any interventions; the main outcome measures; the main results of the study; a discussion section placing the results in context with the published literature and addressing study limitations; and the conclusions. A structured abstract is required, and trial registration information (name, number, and URL) must be listed at the end of the abstract; for more information, see instructions for preparing structured Abstracts for Reports of Original Data. The text should include the full name, academic degrees, and a single institutional affiliation for each author and the email address for the corresponding author. Other persons who have contributed to the study may be indicated in an Acknowledgment, with their permission, including their academic degrees, affiliation, contribution to the study, and an indication if compensation was received for their role. Please provide a word count on the title page. Maximum length: 3000 to 3500 words of text (not including acknowledgment, abstract, tables, figures, references, and online-only material) with no more than a total of 5 tables and/or figures.
These manuscripts are systematic, critical assessments of literature and data sources pertaining to clinical topics, emphasizing factors such as cause, diagnosis, prognosis, therapy, or prevention. All articles or data sources should be searched for and selected systematically for inclusion and critically evaluated, and the search and selection process should be described in the manuscript. The specific type of study or analysis, population, intervention, exposure, and tests or outcomes should be described for each article or data source. The data sources should be as current as possible, ideally with the search having been conducted within several months of manuscript submission. Authors of reports of meta-analyses of clinical trials should submit the PRISMA flow diagram and checklist. Authors of meta-analyses of observational studies should submit the MOOSE checklist. A structured abstract is required; for more information, see instructions for preparing structured Abstracts for Meta-analyses. The text should include the full name, academic degrees, and a single institutional affiliation for each author and the email address for the corresponding author. Other persons who have contributed to the study may be indicated in an Acknowledgment, with their permission, including their academic degrees, affiliation, contribution to the study, and an indication if compensation was received for their role. Please provide a word count on the title page. Maximum length: 3000 to 3500 words of text (not including acknowledgment, abstract, tables, figures, references, and online-only material), with no more than a total of 5 tables and/or figures and no more than 50 references in print (the rest may be uploaded as an online-only supplement).
These manuscripts are short
reports of original studies or evaluations or unique, first-time reports of
clinical case series (3 or more cases) or a single case with extensive laboratory evaluations (eg, genetic analysis). A structured abstract is required; for more information, see instructions for preparing structured Abstracts for Reports of Original Data. Please read the section Identification of Patients in Descriptions, Photographs, Video, and Pedigrees before submitting your manuscript. If identifying patient descriptions, photographs, videos, or pedigrees are included, the JAMA Dermatology Patient Permission form must be completed by the patient and included at the time of manuscript submission. Maximum length: 1200 words (not including abstract, tables, figures, references, and online-only material) with no more than 15 references and a total of 3 tables and/or figures.
These manuscripts (formerly known as the Off-Center Fold) present a case report of less than 250 words, followed by the Diagnosis, Microscopic Findings, and Discussion. At the end of the case report, please pose the question “What is the diagnosis?” and provide 4 possible answers. Three of the choices should be incorrect diagnoses of up to 5 words that might appear clinically and/or histopathologically similar to the actual diagnosis, and 1 of the choices should be the correct answer. The correct response should be indicated in the separate Diagnosis section that immediately follows the case report. On the title page, include a word count for each section. The discussion should be no longer than 600 words. The text should include the full name, academic degrees, and a single institutional affiliation for each author and the email address for the corresponding author. Other persons who have contributed to the study may be indicated in an Acknowledgment, with their permission, including their academic degrees, affiliation, contribution to the study, and an indication if compensation was received for their role. Please provide a word count on the title page. In addition, the JAMA Dermatology Patient Permission form must be completed by the patient and included at the time of manuscript submission. Please read Identification of Patients in Descriptions, Photographs, Video, and Pedigrees before submitting your manuscript. All images submitted should be high-quality .jpg or .tif files. Submit the original version of all image files at the highest resolution possible without labels. In general, the original image file should have a minimum resolution of 300 dpi at a width of about 5 inches. Do not increase the original resolution, resize, or crop the image; where applicable, we will crop to maintain patient confidentiality. If any labels or arrowheads are desired, provide a separate labeled version of the figure(s) for reference. Please do not submit composite images to this section; the production process requires individual figures in order to produce the composited panels that appear in the published article. Maximum length: 850 words of text (not including acknowledgment, figures, references, and online-only material), with no more than 4 figures (no insets in figures); no more than 10 references; no more than 3 authors. Please add explanatory figure titles and legends directly after the references list.
Research Letters reporting original research should not exceed 600 words of text (not including acknowledgment, table, figure, and references) and 6 references and may include up to 2 tables or figures. Online supplementary material is not allowed. Research Letters may have no more than 7 authors. The text should include the full name, academic degrees, and a single institutional affiliation for each author and the email address for the corresponding author. Other persons who have contributed to the study may be indicated in an Acknowledgment, with their permission, including their academic degrees, affiliation, contribution to the study, and an indication if compensation was received for their role. Please provide a word count on the title page. Letters must not duplicate other material published or submitted for publication. In general, Research Letters should be divided into the following sections: To the Editor (which serves as an introduction), Methods, Results, and Discussion. Research Letters should be double-spaced and a word count should be provided with each letter. They should not include an abstract, but otherwise should follow all of the guidelines in Manuscript Preparation and Submission Requirements. The text should include the full name, academic degrees, and a single institutional affiliation for each author and the email address for the corresponding author. Letters not meeting these specifications are generally not considered.
These letters contain very short case reports. Acceptance is contingent on editorial review and available space. Observations are formatted with introductory sentences, followed by the following headings: Report of a Case and Discussion. The text should include the full name, academic degrees, and a single institutional affiliation for each author and the email address for the corresponding author. Other persons who have contributed to the study may be indicated in an Acknowledgment, with their permission, including their academic degrees, affiliation, contribution to the study, and an indication if compensation was received for their role. Please read Identification of Patients in Descriptions, Photographs, Video, and Pedigrees before submitting your manuscript. The JAMA Dermatology Patient Permission form must be completed by the patient and included at the time of manuscript submission.Please provide a word count on the title page. Maximum length: 600 words; up to 2 tables or figures; up to 6 references; no more than a total of 5 authors.
Letter to the Editor
Letters discussing a recent JAMA Dermatology article should be submitted within 4 weeks of the article’s publication in print. Letters received after 4 weeks will rarely be considered. Letters should not exceed 400 words of text and 5 references, 1 of which should be to the recent JAMA Dermatology article. They should be double-spaced, and a word count should be provided on the title page. Letters may have no more than 3 authors. The text should include the full name, academic degrees, and a single institutional affiliation for each author and the email address for the corresponding author. Letters must not duplicate other material published or submitted for publication and should not include unpublished data. Letters not meeting these specifications are generally not considered. Letters will be published at the discretion of the editors and are subject to abridgement and editing for style and content. Alternatively, comments on papers can be submitted using the Comments tab on the online article. Comments promote discussion among readers and authors but are not indexed in PubMed.
The journal will consider 1 type of review article:
Titles for these Reviews should include a concise description of the main topic. Use specific and not overly broad wording for the title; the type of review should be indicated in the
subtitle. For example:
Behavioral Treatment of Obesity: A Systematic Review
Systematic Reviews are critical assessments of the literature and data sources pertaining to clinical topics, emphasizing factors such as cause, diagnosis, prognosis, therapy, or prevention.
Systematic Reviews without meta-analysis are published as Reviews; those with meta-analysis are published as Original Investigations (see Meta-analysis).
Systematic Reviews should address a specific question or issue that is relevant for clinical practice and provide an evidence-based, balanced, patient-oriented review on a focused topic.
The basic structure of manuscripts reporting Systematic Reviews should include the following: Abstract (structured abstract of no more than 350 words); Introduction (150-250 words);
Methods (150-250 words); Results (1000-1250 words, with the following subsections, if appropriate, depending on the specific question or issue addressed: Pathophysiology, Clinical
Presentation, Assessment and Diagnosis, Treatment, and Prognosis); Discussion (1000 words); and Conclusions (2-3 sentences). The Results section must include a table with ratings of the quality of the studies/evidence included in the Systematic Review. If recommendations are included, another Table should present the quality of the evidence used to support the recommendations.
Maximum length: 3500 words of text (not including abstract, tables, figures, acknowledgments, references, and online-only material), with no more than a total of 5 tables and/or figures
and no more than 50-75 references. For an example of a published Systematic Review, see JAMA. 2014;312(6):631-640 and below for the general structure of a Systematic Review
Specific Components of a Systematic Review
Titles for Systematic Reviews should include a concise description of the main topic. Use specific and not overly broad wording for the title; the type of review should be indicated in the subtitle. For example:
Combination Therapies for Metastatic Melanoma: A Systematic Review
Key Points (75-100 words)
This feature provides a quick structured synopsis of the Review, following 3 key points: Question, Findings, and Meaning. Limit to no more than 100 words. This is different from the
Question: What are the most effective medical treatments for adult chronic sinusitis?
Findings: In this systematic review, symptoms of chronic sinusitis were improved with saline irrigation and topical corticosteroid therapy compared to no therapy.
Compared with placebo, 3-week courses of systemic corticosteroids or oral doxycycline were associated with reduced polyp size, and a 3-month course of macrolide antibiotic was associated
with improved symptoms in patients without polyps.
Meaning: First-line therapy for chronic sinusitis should begin with daily topical intranasal corticosteroid in conjunction with saline irrigation; subsequent
therapies should be based on the patient's polyp status and severity of symptoms.
Abstract (350 words)
A structured abstract is required; Systematic Review articles should include a structured abstract of no more than 350 words using the headings listed below.
Importance: Include 1 or 2 sentences describing the clinical question or issue and its importance in clinical practice or public health.
Objective: State the precise primary objective of the review. Indicate whether the review emphasizes factors such as cause, diagnosis, prognosis, therapy, or prevention
and include information about the specific population, intervention, exposure, and tests or outcomes that are being reviewed.
Evidence Review: Describe the information sources used, including the search strategies, years searched, and other sources of material, such as subsequent reference
searches of retrieved articles. Methods used for inclusion of identified articles and quality assessment should be explained.
Findings: Include a brief summary of the number of articles included, numbers of various types of studies (eg, clinical trials, cohort studies), and numbers of
patients/participants represented by these studies. Summarize the major findings of the review of the clinical issue or topic in an evidence-based, objective, and balanced fashion, with the
highest-quality evidence available receiving the greatest emphasis. Provide quantitative data.
Conclusions and Relevance: The conclusions should clearly answer the questions posed if applicable, be based on available evidence, and emphasize how
clinicians should apply current knowledge. Conclusions should be based only on results described in the abstract Findings subsection.
Introduction (150-250 words)
The first 2-3 sentences of the Introduction should draw in readers such that they want to continue reading the article and should establish the importance of the Review. Reviews should
include the clinical question or issue and its importance for general medical practice, specialty practice, or public health. The first paragraph should provide a general summary of the clinical
problem (eg, obesity). The next paragraph should focus on the specific aspect of the clinical problem the article will explore (eg, treatments for obesity). The epidemiology of the disease or
condition should be briefly summarized and generally should include disease prevalence and incidence. The third paragraph should discuss exactly what material will be covered in the Review
(eg, obesity treatments reported in trials with a minimum follow-up of 2 years including 80% of the original cohort).
Methods/Literature Search (150-250 words)
The literature search should be as current as possible, ideally with end dates within a month or two before manuscript submission. A search of the primary literature should be conducted, including multiple bibliographic databases (eg, PubMed/MEDLINE, Embase, CINAHL, PsycINFO). This can be facilitated by collaborating with a medical librarian to help with the search.14
Briefly describe characteristics of the literature searched and included in the review, following the PRISMA
reporting guidelines, including the bibliographic databases and other sources searched, search terms used, dates included in the search, date the literature search was conducted,
screening process, language limitations, and inclusion and exclusion criteria. The rating system used to evaluate the quality of the evidence should be specified (see table below) and the
methods used to evaluate quality should be described, including number of quality raters, how agreement on quality ratings was assessed, and how disagreements on quality ratings were
The highest-quality evidence (eg, randomized clinical trials, meta-analyses, systematic reviews, and high-quality prospective cohort studies) should receive the greatest emphasis. Clinical
practice guidelines ordinarily should not be used as a primary component of the evidence base for the systematic review, although relevant guidelines should be addressed in the Discussion
section of the article.
The search methods should be described in sufficient detail so the search can be reproduced based on the information provided in the manuscript. A summary of the methods of the
literature search including this information should be included in the main article; details can be included in an online-only supplement. A PRISMA-style flow diagram showing this information should also be included as an online-only supplement. In addition, a completed PRISMA checklist should be submitted for the items completed that apply to systematic reviews (the checklist items
that apply to meta-analyses do not need to be completed for systematic reviews without meta-analysis). The checklist will be used during review but will not be published.
Results (1000-1250 words)
First, briefly report the results of the literature search, including the number of articles reviewed and included, numbers of various types of studies (eg, clinical trials, cohort studies)
included, and the aggregate numbers of patients included in the reviewed studies. Also provide a brief summary of the quality of the evidence. Details of this information can be included in a
PRISMA-style flow diagram and table(s).
Next, the subsections listed below should generally appear in the Results sections of most Reviews although all of these subsections may not be necessary for some topics, depending on
the specific question or issue addressed. The word counts following each subsection are suggested to assist with keeping the overall Results section limited to 1000-1250 words.
Pathophysiology (150-250 words). Provide a brief overview of the pathophysiology of the disease. The intent is to provide readers with sufficient background
information about the underpinnings of a disease to provide context for the rest of the article.
Clinical Presentation (150-250 words). Briefly describe the clinical characteristics that result in a patient seeking medical care for the condition or what features of the
disease should lead a clinician to evaluate or treat it.
Assessment and diagnosis (250-300 words). Describe the clinical examination for evaluation of the disease and explain the most salient physical examination findings. If
laboratory or imaging studies are necessary, provide the sensitivity and specificity and diagnostic accuracy of these tests and consider providing positive and negative likelihood ratios.
Sequences of diagnostic tests are best presented as algorithms or in tables.
Treatment (250-500 words). Treatments should be based on the most recently available and highest level of evidence. Treatment options should be summarized in the
text and presented in detail in tables along with an indication of the strength of evidence supporting the individual treatments. In general, treatment recommendations should be supported by
a systematic review of the literature, either performed by the author of the Review or published in the form of a high-quality review or guideline. If possible, the costs for various treatments
should be provided.
Prognosis (100-150 words). A section outlining the overall prognosis for the condition, once treated, should be included.
Discussion (Approximately 1000 words)
Key findings should be summarized in the first paragraph of the Discussion section. All statements made should be supported by evidence. It is very important to not simply list findings
from the studies reviewed. This information is best presented in tables. The Discussion should provide a critical synthesis of data and information based on the results of the review, an
assessment of the quality of studies summarized, and a description of how studies can be interpreted and used to guide clinical practice. The limitations of the evidence and of the review
should be discussed, and gaps in evidence should be addressed. A discussion of controversial or unresolved issues and topics in need of future research also should be included.
Clinical Practice Guidelines: In the Discussion section, describe current clinical practice guidelines, relevant to the topic of the review, if available, and whether the conclusions of this
review agree with, or disagree with, the current clinical practice guidelines. If this is done and there is more than 1 guideline, a table should be prepared comparing the major features that
differ between the guidelines. Guideline quality should be discussed using the standards outlined for the JAMA Clinical Guidelines Synopsis.
Include a 2-3 sentence summary of the major conclusions of the review.
Construct tables that summarize the search results and include a summary of the strength of the evidence. Tables summarizing treatments should have information organized by category of treatment and then by individual treatments.
Columns should include the name of the treatment, strength of evidence supporting the treatment, the treatment's effect (preferably shown as the treatment's effect as compared to control on
the measured outcome together with 95% confidence intervals), adverse effects, and very brief comments, if necessary. Lengthy text-based tables should be avoided. Additional or lengthy
tables may be published online only, if justified.
Ratings of the quality of the evidence. Tables summarizing evidence should include ratings of the quality of the evidence. Use the rating scheme listed below with
ratings of 1-5 for Reviews that include individual studies (modified from the Oxford Centre for Evidence-based Medicine for ratings of individual studies).
Quality Rating Scheme for Studies and Other Evidence
Properly powered and conducted randomized clinical trial; systematic review with meta-analysis
Well-designed controlled trial without randomization; prospective comparative cohort trial
Case-control studies; retrospective cohort study
Case series with or without intervention; cross-sectional study
Opinion of respected authorities; case reports
There are several other preferred systems for rating the quality of evidence in Review articles. For Reviews that synthesize findings from numerous studies into a single summary
recommendation, use the rating scale shown above or the Oxford Centre for Evidence-based Medicine's Levels of Evidence and Grades of Recommendation or the recommendations in the American
College of Cardiology Foundation/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines. For reviews that include diagnostic studies, use The Rational Clinical Examination Levels of Evidence table.
Follow additional instructions for Table preparation and submission. For ratings of recommendations, the grade of recommendation should be ranked as 1, 2A, or 2B depending on the quality of the evidence. The Table should consist of 3 or 4 columns: grade of recommendation, risk/benefit/costs, and the quality of the evidence (A, B, or C) for either treatment/prevention/screening and/or prognosis.
A PRISMA-style flow diagram should be included as an online supplement that summarizes the results of
the literature search and the numbers of articles/records/studies and patients/participants represented in the studies identified, screened, eligible, and included in the final review.
Additional figures that illustrate pathophysiology or clinical presentation may be considered. We encourage videos, if appropriate, to illustrate a point made or process described in the
Follow additional instructions for Figure and Video preparation and submission.
These papers may address virtually any important topic in medicine, public health, research, ethics, health policy, or health law and generally are not linked to a specific article. Viewpoints should be well focused, scholarly, and clearly presented and must have no more than 3 authors. The text should include the full name, academic degrees, and a single institutional affiliation for each author and the email address for the corresponding author. Please provide a word count on the title page. Maximum length: up to 1200 words of text—or 1000 words of text with 1 small table or figure—and no more than 7 references. Viewpoints not meeting these guidelines will not be considered.
Manuscript Preparation and Submission Requirements
All manuscripts must be submitted online via the JAMA Dermatology online manuscript submission and review system. At the time of submission, complete contact information (affiliation, postal/mail address, email address, and telephone number) for the corresponding author is required. First and last names, email addresses, and institutional affiliations of all coauthors are also required. After the manuscript is submitted, the corresponding author will receive an acknowledgment confirming receipt and a manuscript number. Authors will be able to track the status of their manuscripts via the online system. After manuscript submission, all authors of papers under consideration for publication will be sent an Authorship Form to complete and submit (see sample Authorship Form). See Manuscript Checklist, Manuscript Preparation and Submission Requirements, and other details in these instructions for additional requirements.
Include a cover letter and complete contact information for the corresponding author (affiliation, postal/mail address, email address, and telephone numbers) and whether the authors have published or submitted any related papers from the same study (see Duplicate/Previous Publication or Submission).
Manuscripts should be prepared in accordance with the AMA Manual of Style, 10th edition,1 and/or the ICMJE Recommendations for the Conduct, Reporting, Editing, and Publication of Scholarly Work in Medical Journals.2
Include in the manuscript file, in the following order, the Title Pages (including Acknowledgment section), abstract, text, references, and appropriate figure legends and tables. Start each of these sections on a new page, numbered consecutively, beginning with the title pages. Include figures as separate files.
Recommended File Sizes
We recommend individual file sizes of no more than 500 kB and not exceeding 1 MB, with the total size for all files not exceeding 5 MB (not including any video files).
Manuscript File Formats
For submission and review, acceptable manuscript file formats include Word. Do not submit your manuscript in .pdf format. Microsoft Vista users should save the text as a Microsoft Word 97-2003 file (.doc NOT .docx).
Manuscripts are double-spaced throughout, including abstract, text, references, legends for illustrations, and tables. Use only Times New Roman 12-point font size. Ample margins of at least 2.5 cm (1 in) should be used all around. Do not use proportional spacing; use unjustified (ragged) right margins and spell-check the manuscript prior to submission.
Figure File Formats
For digital images, submit initially as a single JPG file for each figure (see Figures).
The title page should be the first pages of your main manuscript file. It should include a manuscript title; the full names, highest academic degrees, and affiliations of all authors (if an author’s affiliation has changed since the work was done, the new affiliation also should be listed); name and complete contact information for corresponding author; authors’ contributions and conflict of interest disclosures (see the Template for Author Attribution and Conflict of Interest Disclosure); and word count (not including title, abstract, acknowledgments, or references).
Titles should be concise, specific, and informative and should contain the key points of the work.1(p8) Please limit the length of titles to 150 characters for reports of research and other major articles and 100 characters for Editorials, Viewpoints, Commentaries, and Letters. For scientific manuscripts, overly general titles are not desirable and questions and declarative sentences should be avoided. For reports of clinical trials, meta-analyses, and systematic reviews, include the type of study as a subtitle (eg, A Randomized Clinical Trial, A Meta-analysis, A Systematic Review). For reports of other types of research, do not include study type or design in the title or subtitle.
Include a structured abstract of no more than 350 words for reports of original data, reviews (including meta-analyses), and consensus statements. Abstracts should be prepared in JAMA Network style—see instructions for preparing structured abstracts for specific article types below. Abstracts are not required for Editorials, Viewpoints, and some special features.
Abstracts for Reports of Original Data:
Reports of original data should include an abstract of no more than 350 words using the headings listed below. For brevity, parts of the abstract may be written as phrases rather than complete sentences. Each section should include the following content:
Importance: The abstract should begin with a sentence or two explaining the clinical (or other) importance of the study question.
Objective: State the precise objective or study question addressed in the report (eg, “To determine whether…”). If more than 1 objective is addressed, the main objective should be indicated and only key secondary objectives stated. If an a priori hypothesis was tested, it should be stated.
Design: Describe the basic design of the study. State the years of the study and the duration of follow-up. If applicable, include the name of the study (eg, the Framingham Heart Study). As relevant, indicate whether observers were blinded to patient groupings, particularly for subjective measurements.
Setting: Describe the study setting to assist readers to determine the applicability of the report to other circumstances, for example, general community, a primary care or referral center, private or institutional practice, or ambulatory or hospitalized care.
Participants: State the clinical disorders, important eligibility criteria, and key sociodemographic features of patients. The numbers of participants and how they were selected should be provided (see below), including the number of otherwise eligible individuals who were approached but refused. If matching is used for comparison groups, characteristics that are matched should be specified. In follow-up studies, the proportion of participants who completed the study must be indicated. In intervention studies, the number of patients withdrawn because of adverse effects should be given. For selection procedures, these terms should be used, if appropriate: random sample (where random refers to a formal, randomized selection in which all eligible individuals have a fixed and usually equal chance of selection); population-based sample; referred sample; consecutive sample; volunteer sample; convenience sample.
Note: For accepted manuscripts, the above 3 sections are usually combined during the editing process (as "Design, Setting, and Participants"), but for manuscript submission these sections should be kept separate.
Intervention(s) for Clinical Trials or Exposure(s) for observational studies: The essential features of any interventions, or exposures, should be described, including their method and duration. The intervention, or exposure, should be named by its most common clinical name, and nonproprietary drug names should be used.
Main Outcome(s) and Measure(s): Indicate the primary study outcome(s) and measurement(s) as planned before data collection began. If the manuscript does not report the main planned outcomes of a study, this fact should be stated and the reason indicated. State clearly if the hypothesis being tested was formulated during or after data collection. Explain outcomes or measurements unfamiliar to a general medical readership.
Results: The main outcomes of the study should be reported and quantified, including baseline characteristics and final included/analyzed sample. Include absolute numbers and measures of absolute risks (such as increase/decrease or absolute differences between groups), along with confidence intervals (for example, 95%) or P values. Approaches such as number needed to treat to achieve a unit of benefit may be included when appropriate. Measures of relative risk also may be reported (eg, relative risk, hazard ratios) and should include confidence intervals. Studies of screening and diagnostic tests should report sensitivity, specificity, and likelihood ratio. If predictive value or accuracy is reported, prevalence or pretest likelihood should be given as well. All randomized clinical trials should include the results of intention-to-treat analysis, and all surveys should include response rates.
Conclusions and Relevance: Provide only conclusions of the study that are directly supported by the results. Give equal emphasis to positive and negative findings of equal scientific merit. Also, provide a statement of relevance indicating implications for clinical practice or health policy, avoiding speculation and overgeneralization. The relevance statement may also indicate whether additional study is required before the information should be used in clinical settings.
Trial Registration: For clinical trials, the name of the trial registry, registration number, and URL of the registry must be included.
Manuscripts reporting the results of meta-analyses should include an abstract of no more than 350 words using the following headings listed below. The text of the manuscript should also include a section describing the methods used for data sources, study selection, data extraction, and data synthesis. Each heading should be followed by a brief description:
Importance: A sentence or two explaining the importance of the review question.
Objective: State the precise primary objective of the review. Indicate whether the review emphasizes factors such as cause, diagnosis, prognosis, therapy, or prevention and include information about the specific population, intervention, exposure, and tests or outcomes that are being reviewed.
Data Sources: Succinctly summarize data sources, including years searched. The search should include the most current information possible, ideally with the search being conducted within several months before the date of manuscript submission. Potential sources include computerized databases and published indexes, registries, abstract booklets, conference proceedings, references identified from bibliographies of pertinent articles and books, experts or research institutions active in the field, and companies or manufacturers of tests or agents being reviewed. If a bibliographic database is used, state the exact indexing terms used for article retrieval, including any constraints (for example, English language or human study participants). If abstract space does not permit this level of detail, summarize sources in the abstract including databases and years searched, and place the remainder of the information in the Methods section.
Study Selection: Describe inclusion and exclusion criteria used to select studies for detailed review from among studies identified as relevant to the topic. Details of selection should include particular populations, interventions, outcomes, or methodological designs. The method used to apply these criteria should be specified (for example, blinded review, consensus, multiple reviewers). State the proportion of initially identified studies that met selection criteria.
Data Extraction and Synthesis: Describe guidelines used for abstracting data and assessing data quality and validity (such as criteria for causal inference) and whether data were pooled using a fixed-effects or random-effects model. The method by which the guidelines were applied should be stated (for example, independent extraction by multiple observers).
Main Outcome(s) and Measure(s): Indicate the primary study outcome(s) and measurement(s) as planned before data collection began. If the manuscript does not report the main planned outcomes of a study, this fact should be stated and the reason indicated. State clearly if the hypothesis being tested was formulated during or after data collection. Explain outcomes or measurement unfamiliar to a general medical readership.
Results: State the main quantitative results of the review, including baseline characteristics and final included/analyzed studies and/or sample(s). Include absolute risks whenever possible (such as increase/decrease or absolute differences between groups), along with confidence intervals (for example, 95%) or P values. Meta-analyses should state the major outcomes that were pooled and include odds ratios or effect sizes and, if possible, sensitivity analyses. Numerical results should be accompanied by confidence intervals, if applicable, and exact levels of statistical significance. Evaluations of screening and diagnostic tests should include sensitivity, specificity, likelihood ratios, receiver operating characteristic curves, and predictive values. Assessments of prognosis should summarize survival characteristics and related variables. Major identified sources of variation between studies should be stated, including differences in treatment protocols, co-interventions, confounders, outcome measures, length of follow-up, and dropout rates.
Conclusions and Relevance: The conclusions and their applications (clinical or otherwise) should be clearly stated, limiting interpretation to the domain of the review.
Abstracts for Reviews:
Consensus statements should include an abstract of no more than 250 words using the headings listed below. This format should also be used to report clinical practice guidelines that were developed by consensus. While the descriptions are summarized in the abstract, they should be expanded in the text. References supporting the text should be provided. The content under each heading is as follows:
Importance: Describe the issue, purpose, and intended audience for the consensus statement. The issue may be framed as a series of key questions; as a targeted health problem with relevant patients and providers; or as practice options with health and economic outcomes. The audience may include primary care clinicians, specialist physicians, researchers, health planners, and/or the public.
Objective: The purpose may be to guide clinical practice; to develop public policy; to determine whether insurance will cover innovative therapy; or to set norms for evaluating clinical performance.
Evidence Review: Describe the information sources used, including selection, abstraction, and synthesis. (See also Review for more information.) If a formal literature review was prepared, describe who wrote it and whether it was reviewed. Explain the use of unpublished data and the influence of expert opinion and comments from other participants.
Findings: Describe the basis for drawing conclusions (some techniques involve causal pathways, decision rules, or assigning values to alternative outcomes). Explain the process by which consensus was achieved, such as voting, the Delphi technique, group meetings, or the nominal group process. Explain who wrote the statement (a single person or a writing committee); whether it was drafted before it was presented to the group or after the group had expressed its opinions; and the time during which it was written. Describe who reviewed the statement and how suggestions for revision were incorporated.
Conclusions and Relevance: Summarize the consensus statement. Conclusions may include what benefits, harms, and costs are expected if the recommendations were implemented. Include important minority views.
With the manuscript, a separate Supplemental file called "Key Points," should be submitted.
This feature provides a quick structured synopsis of the findings of your manuscript (required only for research and review manuscripts), following 3 key points: Question, Findings, and Meaning. Limit this section to 75-100 words or less.
Question: Focused question based on the study hypothesis or goal/purpose. Limit to 1 sentence.
Findings: Results of the study/review. Include the design (eg, clinical trial, cohort study, case-control study, meta-analysis, systematic review). Focus on primary outcome(s) and finding(s). Do not emphasize secondary outcomes. Report basic numbers only but state if results are statistically significant or not significant; do not include results of statistical tests or measures of variance (see example below). Can include 1-2 sentences.
Meaning: Key conclusion and implication based on the primary finding(s). Limit to 1 sentence.
Example of Research Article
Question: What is the immunogenicity of an inactivated influenza A vaccine with and without adjuvant?
Findings: In this randomized clinical trial that included 980 adults, the proportion achieving an effective antibody response was 84% with adjuvant vs 2% without adjuvant, a significant difference.
Meaning: In an influenza pandemic the use of an adjuvant with inactivated influenza A vaccine may be warranted.
Example of Review Article
Question: What are the most effective medical treatments for adult chronic sinusitis?
Findings: In this systematic review, symptoms of chronic sinusitis were improved with saline irrigation and topical corticosteroid therapy compared to no therapy. Compared with placebo, 3-week courses of systemic corticosteroids or oral doxycycline were associated with reduced polyp size, and a 3-month course of macrolide antibiotic was associated with improved symptoms in patients without polyps.
Meaning: First-line therapy for chronic sinusitis should begin with daily topical intranasal corticosteroid in conjunction with saline irrigation; subsequent therapies should be based on the patient’s polyp status and severity of symptoms.
Do not use abbreviations in the title and limit their use in the text. Expand all abbreviations at first mention in the text.
Methods and Statistics
Authors are encouraged to consult “Reporting Statistical Information in Medical Journal Articles.”13 Describe statistical methods with enough detail to enable a knowledgeable reader with access to the original data to reproduce the reported results. When possible, quantify findings and present them with appropriate indicators of measurement error or uncertainty (such as confidence intervals). Avoid relying solely on statistical hypothesis testing, such as the use of P values, which fails to convey important quantitative information. Give details about randomization. Describe the methods for and success of any blinding of observations. Report complications of treatment. Give numbers of observations. Report losses to observation (such as dropouts from a clinical trial). For multivariate models, report all variables included in models, and report model diagnostics and proportion of variance explained by both individual variables and the complete model.
Put a general description of methods in the Methods section. Restrict tables and figures to those needed to explain the argument of the article and to assess its support. Use graphs as an alternative to tables with many entries; do not duplicate data in graphs and tables. Avoid nontechnical uses of technical terms in statistics, such as random (which implies a randomizing device), normal, significant, correlations, and sample. Define statistical terms, abbreviations, and most symbols.
Units of Measure
Laboratory values are expressed using conventional units of measure, with relevant Système International (SI) conversion factors expressed secondarily (in parentheses) only at first mention. Articles that contain numerous conversion factors may list them together in a paragraph at the end of the Methods section. In tables and figures, a conversion factor to SI units should be provided in a footnote or legend. The metric system is preferred for the expression of length, area, mass, and volume. For more details, see the Units of Measure conversion table on the website for the AMA Manual of Style.1
Names of Drugs, Devices, and Other Products
Use nonproprietary names of drugs, devices, and other products, unless the specific trade name of a drug used is essential to the discussion.1(pp567-569)
Gene Names, Symbols, and Accession Numbers
Authors describing genes or related structures in a manuscript should include the names and official symbols provided by the US National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) or the HUGO Gene Nomenclature Committee. Before submission of a research manuscript reporting on large genomic data sets (eg, protein or DNA sequences), the data sets should be deposited in a publicly available database, such as NCBI’s GenBank, and a complete accession number (and version number, if appropriate) must be provided in the Methods section of the manuscript.
Please verify that all information and materials in the manuscript are original. JAMA Dermatology generally does not republish text, tables, figures, or other material from other publishers, except in rare circumstances. If you believe that you must include content that is owned by a third party, please let us know and provide information about all material that has been previously published and, when applicable, include author(s), title of article, title of journal or book or other publication, and complete citation, doi, and/or URL. The publisher or other third party’s permission to reproduce in print and online and in licensed versions of JAMA Dermatology should be submitted to JAMA Dermatology when the manuscript is submitted. (See Permission to Reproduce Copyright-Protected Material Guidelines.)
Authors are responsible for the accuracy and completeness of their references and for correct text citation. Number references in the order they appear in the text; do not alphabetize. In text, tables, and legends, identify references with superscript arabic numerals. When listing references, follow AMA style1(pp39-79) and abbreviated names of journals according to the journals list in PubMed. List all authors and/or editors up to 6; if more than 6, list the first 3 followed by “et al.” Note: Journal references should include the issue number in parentheses after the volume number.
Examples of reference style:
- 1. Tempark T, Shwayder T. Chinese fortune-telling based on face and body mole positions: a hidden agenda regarding mole removal. Arch Dermatol. 2012;148(6):772-773.
- 2. Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services. CMS proposals to implement certain disclosure provisions of the Affordable Care Act. http://www.cms.gov/apps/media/press/factsheet.asp?Counter=4221. Accessed January 30, 2012.
- 3. McPhee SJ, Winker MA, Rabow MW, Pantilat SZ, Markowitz AJ, eds. Care at the Close of Life: Evidence and Experience. New York, NY: McGraw Hill Medical; 2011.
Number all tables in the order of their citation in the text. Include a title for each table (a brief phrase, preferably no longer than 10-15 words). Include all tables at the end of the manuscript file. Refer to Categories of Articles because there may be a limit on the number of tables for the type of manuscript. If a table must be continued, repeat the title on the second page, followed by “(continued).” Make certain that each item in the table sits in its own table cell. Do not use paragraph returns (to start new rows) or tabs (to start new columns) to format the table. Tables must be modifiable within the manuscript file. Do not insert images of tables. Online-only tables will not be edited (see Online-Only Supplements and Multimedia).
Instructions for Table Creation
These instructions are available here.
Number all figures (graphs, charts, photographs, and illustrations) in the order of their citation in the text. Include a title for each figure (a brief phrase, preferably no longer than 10 to 15 words). For initial manuscript submission, figures must be submitted as high-resolution, uncompressed TIF or JPG files. Generally, each figure exceeds 200 kB. Please submit photographic images at 5 inches (13 cm) wide at 300 pixels per inch (120 pixels per centimeter), minimum. This applies to each part for multipart figures. Save files as TIF (with LZW compression), JPG (with “maximum quality” setting). Please do not add arrowheads, “a,” “b,” asterisks, etc, directly to the file that contains the single figure. A separate, composite figure in PowerPoint may be submitted to indicate the location of arrows, asterisks, etc. Submit photographs and illustrations as separate JPG files for each figure. Do not embed figures in the Word file of the manuscript. If the manuscript is accepted, authors will be asked to provide figures that meet the Guidelines for Figures. Graphs, charts, and legends in accepted manuscripts will be recreated or edited according to JAMA Network style and standards prior to publication. Online-only figures will not be edited or recreated (see Online-Only Supplements and Multimedia).
Preparation of scientific images (clinical images, radiographic images, micrographs, gels, etc) for publication must preserve the integrity of the image data. Digital adjustments of brightness, contrast, or color applied uniformly to an entire image are permissible as long as these adjustments do not selectively highlight, misrepresent, obscure, or eliminate specific elements in the original figure, including the background. Selective adjustments applied to individual elements in an image are not permissible. Individual elements may not be moved within an image field, deleted, or inserted from another image. Cropping may be used for efficient image display but must not misrepresent or alter interpretation of the image by selectively eliminating relevant visual information. Juxtaposition of elements from different parts of a single image or from different images, as in a composite, must be clearly indicated by the addition of dividing lines, borders, and/or panel labels.
When inappropriate image adjustments are detected by JAMA Dermatology staff, authors will be asked for an explanation and will be requested to submit the image as originally captured prior to any adjustment, cropping, or labeling. Authors may be asked to resubmit the image prepared in accordance with the above standards.
Guidelines for Figures in Accepted Manuscripts:
These guidelines are available here.
Acceptable Figure File Size
To reduce the time that it takes to upload files to the JAMA Dermatology submission site and for reviewers to download files from the site, we recommend that the file size of figures be compressed before uploading them. This can be done by using compression software or by decreasing the resolution of individual files.
Acceptable Figure File Formats
At submission, the following file formats are acceptable: ai, bmp, doc, emf, eps, jpg, pdf, ppt, psd, tif, wmf, or xls. Figures should be submitted as separate files (1 file per figure or composite figure) and not included in the manuscript text. PPT files can be used to show where arrows may be applied to the image.
Figure Titles and Legends
At the end of the manuscript, include a title and legend for each figure. The figure title should be a brief descriptive phrase, preferably no longer than 10 to 15 words. The figure legend can be used for a brief explanation of the figure or markers if needed (preferred maximum length, 40 words) and expansion of abbreviations. For photomicrographs, include the type of specimen, original magnification or a scale bar, and stain in the legend. For gross pathology specimens, label any rulers with unit of measure. Digitally enhanced images must be clearly identified in the figure legends as enhanced or manipulated, eg, computed tomographic scans, magnetic resonance images, photographs, photomicrographs, x-ray films.
Figures With Labels, Arrows, or Other Markers
Photographs, clinical images, photomicrographs, gel electrophoresis, and the like that include labels, arrows, or other markers must be submitted in 2 versions: one version with the markers and one without. Provide an explanation for all labels, arrows, or other markers in the figure legend. The Figure field in the File Description tab of the manuscript submission form allows for uploading of 2 versions of the same figure.
Number of Figures
Refer to Categories of Articles as there may be a limit on the number of figures for the type of manuscript.
Authors may submit supporting material to accompany their article for online-only publication when there is insufficient space to include the material in the print article. This material should be important to the understanding and interpretation of the report and should not repeat material in the print article. The amount of online-only material should be limited and justified. Online-only material should be original and not previously published.
Online-only material will undergo editorial and peer review with the main manuscript. If the manuscript is accepted for publication and if the online-only material is deemed appropriate for publication by the editors, it will be posted online at the time of publication of the article as additional material provided by the authors. This material will not be edited or formatted; thus, authors are responsible for the accuracy and presentation of all such material.
Online-only material should be submitted in a single Word document (Supplement) with pages numbered consecutively. Each element included in the online-only material should be cited in the text of the main manuscript (eg, “see eTable in the Supplement”) and numbered in order of citation in the text (eg, eTable 1, eTable 2, eFigure 1, eFigure 2, eMethods). The first page of the online-only document should list the number and title of each element included in the Supplement.
Online-only text should be set in Arial font, 10 point in size, and single-spaced. The main heading of the online-only text should be in 12 point and boldface; subheadings should be in 10 point and boldface.
All references cited within the online-only document must be included in a separate reference section, including those that also were cited in the main manuscript. They should be formatted just as in the main manuscript and numbered and cited consecutively in the online-only material.
Online-only tables should be inserted in the document and numbered consecutively according to the order of citation as eTable 1, eTable 2, etc. The text and data in online tables should be Arial font, 10 point in size, and single-spaced. The table title should be set in Arial font, 12 point, and bold. Headings within tables should be set in 10 point and bold. Table footnotes should be set in 8 point and single-spaced. See also instructions for Tables. If a table runs on to subsequent pages, repeat the column headers at the top of each page. Wide tables may be presented using a landscape orientation.
Online-only figures should be inserted in the document and numbered consecutively according to the order of citation as eFigure 1, eFigure 2, etc. Figure titles should be set in Arial font, 12 point, bold, and single-spaced. Text within figures should be set as Arial font, 10 point. Figure legends should be set in 8 point and single-spaced. Graphs and diagrams should be exported directly out of the software application used to create them in a vector file format, such as WMF, and then inserted into the Word document. Image file formats such as JPG, TIF, and GIF are generally not suitable for graphs. Photographs, including all radiological images, should be prepared as JPG (highest option) or TIF (uncompressed) files at a resolution of 300 dpi and width of 3 to 5 inches, but the resolution of photographic files with an original resolution less than 300 dpi should not be increased digitally to achieve a 300-dpi resolution. Photographs should be inserted in the document with the “Link to File” button turned off. Wide figures may be presented using a landscape orientation.
For editorial and peer review of an initial submission, submit videos according to the following minimum requirements:
- Acceptable file formats: .mov, .wmv, .mpg, .mpeg, .mp4, or .avi
- Maximum file size: 25 MB
- Minimum dimensions: 320 pixels wide by 240 pixels deep 480 pixels wide; height may vary
- Desired aspect ratio: 4:3 (standard) or 16:9 (widescreen)
- Maximum length: 5 minutes
- Verify that the videos are viewable in QuickTime or Windows Media Player.
For each video, provide a citation in the appropriate place in the manuscript text and include a title (a brief phrase, preferably no longer than 10-15 words) and a caption at the end of the manuscript. In the video caption, specify the video file format and briefly describe the content of the video (preferably no longer than 100 words). The same title and caption must be entered in the designated fields on the web-based manuscript submission system when uploading each video. If multiple video files are submitted, number them in the order in which they should be viewed.
If patient(s) are identifiable in the video, authors must submit with the manuscript the Patient Permission form completed and signed by the patient. See also Identification of Patients in Descriptions, Photographs, Video, and Pedigrees.
If the author does not hold copyright to the video, the author must obtain permission for the video to be published in JAMA Dermatology. This permission must be for unrestricted use in all print, online, and licensed versions of JAMA Dermatology. (See Permission to Reproduce Copyright-Protected Material Form.) Submit the completed form to the editorial office.
Postacceptance requirements: If the manuscript and accompanying video(s) are accepted for publication, journal staff will contact you to request the original full-size video without superimposed text, labels, arrows, logos, or other graphical elements. As needed, video files may be edited according to journal style. Note: There is no minimum file size requirement once it has been accepted.
Please see Additional Guidelines and Considerations for Optimal Video Quality.
For editorial and peer review of an initial submission, submit videos according to the following minimum requirements:
- Audio files may be submitted as an mp3 file, no larger than 10 MB.
- Acceptable file formats: .mp3, .wav, or .aiff
- Maximum file size: 10 MB
- To achieve the best quality, when saving audio files as an mp3, use a setting of 256 kbps or higher for stereo or 128 kbps or higher for mono.
- Sampling rate should be either 44.1 kHz or 48 kHz.
- Bit rate should be either 16 or 24 bit.
- To avoid audible clipping noise, please make sure that audio levels do not exceed 0 dBFS.
For each audio file, provide a citation in the appropriate place in the manuscript text and include a title (a brief phrase, preferably no longer than 10-15 words) and a caption at the end of the manuscript.
Postacceptance requirements: If the manuscript and accompanying audio file(s) are accepted for publication, journal staff will contact you to request the original uncompressed audio file. Note: There is no minimum file size requirement once it has been accepted.
- 1. Format the manuscript as a single Word file with insertion of page breaks between each of the items listed in the order of appearance in the file as follows: title pages, abstract, narrative of the body of the text, references, legends for figures, and tables. Load the Word file as 1 document. Do not add line numbering. Do not insert figures into the main manuscript document.
- 2. Indicate general and specific contributions from each author and financial disclosure/conflict of interest at the end of the manuscript, before the references, using the Template for Author Attribution and Conflict of Interest Disclosures,
- 3. Include research or project support/funding in an acknowledgment at the end of the manuscript.
- 4. Provide the address, email address, telephone numbers of the corresponding author on the title page
- 5. Authors will be required to complete and sign a JAMA Dermatology Authorship Form with information about (1) authorship criteria and responsibility, (2) conflict of interest disclosures, (3) acknowledgment statement, and either the copyright transfer/publishing agreement or the federal employment statement. These statements will be provided to the corresponding author and all coauthors when the editorial office needs them. Once the forms have been received, all authors should upload their scanned and completed authorship forms under their individual accounts on our website. Please do not use the corresponding author’s form for all of the coauthors. These forms are personalized and should be downloaded individually by all authors.
- 6. Double-space manuscript (text, figure legends, and references) with unjustified (ragged) right margins.
- 7. Check all references for accuracy and completeness. Put references in proper format in numerical order, making sure each is cited in the text.
- 8. When submitting figures electronically, see instructions in Guidelines for Figures.
- 9. Provide a structured abstract for all reports of original data, reviews (including meta-analyses), and consensus statements.
- 10. Submit written permission from each individual identified as a source for personal communication to allow citation of that communication.
- 11. Informed consent forms for identifiable patient descriptions, photographs, and pedigrees (see Patient Consent Form) are required upon request. Do not submit photographs with bars across the eyes.
- 12. Submit written permission from publishers or other copyright holders to reproduce or adapt previously published illustrations, tables, or videos in print and online editions of JAMA Dermatology and its licensed versions (see Permission to Reproduce Copyright-Protected Material Guidelines).
- 13. For any video submitted, include a brief legend that describes the content of the video and provide the file format.
- 1. Iverson C, Christiansen S, Flanagin A, et al. AMA Manual of Style: A Guide for Authors and Editors. 10th ed. New York, NY: Oxford University Press; 2007. http://www.amamanualofstyle.com.
- 2. International Committee of Medical Journal Editors. Recommendations for the Conduct, Reporting, Editing and Publication of Scholarly Work in Medical Journals. http://www.icmje.org. Updated 2013. Accessed September 29, 2014.
- 3. Flanagin A, Fontanarosa PB, DeAngelis CD. Authorship for research groups. JAMA. 2002;288(24):3166-3168.
- 4. The American Association for Public Opinion Research. Standard Definitions: Final Dispositions of Case Codes and Outcome Rates for Surveys. 8th ed. Oakbrook Terrace, IL: American Association for Public Opinion Research; 2015. http://www.aapor.org/AAPORKentico/AAPOR_Main/media/publications/Standard-Definitions2015_8theditionwithchanges_April2015_logo.pdf. Accessed September 22, 2015.
- 5. DeAngelis CD, Drazen JM, Frizelle FA, et al; International Committee of Medical Journal Editors. Clinical trial registration: a statement from the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors. JAMA. 2004;292(11):1363-1364.
- 6. Deangelis CD, Drazen JM, Frizelle FA, et al; International Committee of Medical Journal Editors. Is this clinical trial fully registered? a statement from the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors. JAMA. 2005;293(23):2927-2929.
- 7. Callen JP, Robinson JK. Clinical trial registration: a step forward in providing transparency for the positive and negative results of clinical trials. Arch Dermatol. 2005;141(1):75.
- 8. Winker MA. Measuring race and ethnicity: why and how? JAMA. 2004;292(13):1612-1614.
- 9. World Medical Association. World Medical Association Declaration of Helsinki: ethical principles for medical research involving human subjects. JAMA. 2013;310(20):2191-2194. http://jama.jamanetwork.com/article.aspx?articleid=1760318. Accessed January 2, 2014.
- 10. Callen JP, Robinson JK. Assurance of protection of human subjects’ safety and privacy. Arch Dermatol. 2009;145(2):193-194.
- 11. Atlas R, Campbell P, Cozzarelli NR, et al; Journal Editors and Authors Group. Statement on scientific publication and security. Science. 2003;299(5610):1149. http://www.sciencemag.org/site/feature/data/security/statement.pdf. Accessed February 28, 2012.
- 12. Robinson JK, Dellavalle RP, Bigby M, Callen JP. Systematic reviews: grading recommendations and evidence quality. Arch Dermatol. 2008;144(1):97-99.
- 13. Cummings P, Rivara FP. Reporting statistical information in medical journal articles. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2003;157(4):321-324.
- 14. Rethlefsen ML, Murad MH, Livingston EH. Engaging medical librarians to improve the quality of review articles. JAMA. 2014;312(10):999-1000. FULL TEXT. Medline:25203078.
Last updated March 23, 2016.