To evaluate the role of leptin, a 16-kDa adipocyte-derived hormone, in the development of metabolic dysregulation of psoriasis.
Seventy-seven patients with psoriasis and 81 age- and sex-matched control subjects were included in the study.
Enzyme-linked immunoassay of serum samples from study subjects.
Main Outcome Measures
Serum leptin levels and proportions of comorbidities (including hypertension, diabetes mellitus, metabolic syndrome, hypertriglyceridemia, and reduced high-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations) in cases vs controls were compared using χ2 and Mann-Whitney tests. The clinical significance of leptin in psoriasis was analyzed using logistic regression models.
Significantly more obesity (odds ratio [OR], 2.67) and hypertension (2.17) (P =.04 for both) were observed in subjects with psoriasis. High serum leptin levels (≥7397.43 pg/mL) were found in female subjects (OR, 6.05; P < .001) and in subjects with obesity (3.45; P =.01), hypertension (2.19; P =.04), metabolic syndrome (3.58; P =.008), and psoriasis (2.25; P =.02). On multivariate analysis, psoriasis (OR, 4.57; P =.009) was significantly associated with hyperleptinemia independent of female sex (26.36; P < .001), metabolic syndrome (4.37; P =.04), and obesity (2.83; P =.12). Finally, patients with psoriasis who had hyperleptinemia tended to be female (P < .001) and manifested obesity (P =.002) and metabolic syndrome (P =.003).
Hyperleptinemia is associated with psoriasis independent of female sex and other conventional cardiovascular risk factors such as obesity and metabolic syndrome. Hyperleptinemia in psoriasis may contribute to metabolic syndrome.