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Research Letter |

Left-Sided Excess in the Laterality of Cutaneous Melanoma FREE

Jean-Luc Bulliard, PhD; Silvia Ess, MD; Andrea Bordoni, MD; Isabelle Konzelmann, MD; Fabio Levi, MD
Arch Dermatol. 2008;144(4):556-558. doi:10.1001/archderm.144.4.556.
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An unequal distribution of cancer laterality, particularly in paired organs, has long been documented and generally thought to be related to asymmetries in organ size or behavioral factors such as handedness.1 Recently in a large series patients with cancers in the left testis, right lung, and left ovary were found to have a significantly better survival than those with contralateral cancers.2 Apart from anecdotal assertions and very sparse data that suggest asymmetrical differences in the frequency of cutaneous melanoma and photodamage,3,4 melanoma laterality has, to our knowledge, never been specifically studied. Investigation of laterality could thus contribute to a better understanding of cancer etiology and prognosis.

As part of a larger study,5 the laterality of 2143 first cutaneous melanomas was retrieved and clinically validated using a standardized body chart that allowed unequivocal marking of the location of the lesion.6 After excluding cases with unspecified laterality (n = 228 [11%]) or those on the midline (n = 254 [12%]), 1661 melanomas diagnosed between 1995 and 2002 in 5 Swiss population-based tumor registries (Neuchâtel, St Gallen/Appenzell, Vaud, Valais, and Ticino) were investigated. Results were expressed as left to right (L/R) ratios and stratified by cancer registration area, sex, age group, and subsite. Exact 2-sided 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) were computed assuming that laterality was binomially distributed.

This series included 890 left-sided and 771 right-sided melanomas, yielding an L/R ratio of 1.15 (95% CI: 1.05-1.27). The excess of left-sided lesions was consistently observed across all populations, sexes, age groups, body site, and categories of Breslow thicknesses (Table), although it only occasionally reached statistical significance. The upper limbs was the site with the greatest left-sided excess (27%). Left to right ratios higher than 1 were systematically found for clinical characteristics such as tumor behavior (invasive and in situ), skin type, and morphological type (data not shown).

Table Graphic Jump LocationTable. Laterality (Left to Right Ratio) of 1661 Cutaneous Melanomas in 5 Swiss Regions (1995-2002) by Sex, Age Group, and Body Site

This multicentric study suggests a moderate but consistently higher frequency of melanoma on the left side of about 15%. Four main potential explanations were identified and explored: chance finding, recording bias, differential sun exposure, and bilateral asymmetry in the number of melanocytes or tumor biological behavior.

Although chance finding cannot be excluded, we believe it is an unlikely explanation for our observation. The pattern was similar for every variable studied and, for instance, the probability of observing simultaneously an excess L/R ratio in all 5 populations was about 3% (1 in 32). The detailed site was thoroughly cross-validated from textual and pictorial support.6

Two nonmethodological explanations for a left-sided excess of melanoma can be speculated. Traveling in a motor vehicle is probably the only frequent human activity that results in side-specific UV exposure depending on the individual position in the car. Swiss drivers sit on the left side of the car and, until the recent availability of air conditioning, their left arm was more likely to be sun exposed through an open window, particularly in summertime. The largest left-sided excess observed for the upper limbs (an L/R ratio of 1.27, 95% CI: 1.05-1.54,Table) and the greater L/R ratio for men (an L/R ratio of 1.38, P = .02, data not shown) than women (an L/R ratio of 1.18, P = .22, data not shown) at this site supports this assumption and the known greater propensity for men to drive. Reports of a left-sided excess of facial photodamage lesions commensurate with time spent driving in the United States4 and the commoner occurrence of solar keratoses on the right upper limb among Australian men,3 where drivers sit on the right side of vehicles, concurred with our findings. This hypothesis, however, only partly explains our results, since it cannot account for the left-sided excess of melanomas observed at other body sites.

Several aspects in embryogenesis occur in asymmetric fashion. An asymmetry in the distribution of melanocytes favoring the left body side might occur when these cells migrate from the neural crest during embryonic development. This assumption could be challenged and eventually supported by investigating the laterality of nonmelanocytic skin cancers from the Vaud Cancer Registry database7 since L/R ratios computed for squamous and basal cell carcinomas registered over a 10-year period (1995-2004) were 1.03 (1286:1244) and 1.00 (2946:2939), respectively (F.L., oral communication, September 2007). An asymmetric development of the angiolymphatic system might lead to a higher progression of left-sided melanoma, which is compatible with our concomitant increase in L/R ratios and melanoma thickness.

This largest study to date to explore melanoma laterality suggests that an asymmetric, melanocytic distribution or, to a lesser extent, a differential sun exposure are plausible etiological explanations for the observed left-sided excess of melanomas but not of other types of skin cancers.

ARTICLE INFORMATION

Correspondence: Dr Bulliard, Unité d'épidémiologie du cancer, Institut universitaire de médecine sociale et préventive, rue du Bugnon 17, 1005 Lausanne, Switzerland (Jean-Luc.Bulliard@chuv.ch).

Financial Disclosure: None reported.

Additional Contributions: Practitioners are gratefully acknowledged for taking the time to complete the survey questionnaires. We are indebted to T. Fisch, MD, and D. De Weck, MD, as well as the staff of the cancer registries of Neuchâtel, St Gallen/Appenzell, Vaud, Valais, and Ticino, for their valuable collaboration. We also thank C. La Vecchia, MD, for his most helpful comments.

Garfinkel  LCraig  LSeidman  H An appraisal of left and right breast cancer. J Natl Cancer Inst 1959;23617- 631
PubMed
Roychoudhuri  RPutcha  VMoller  H Cancer and laterality: a study of the five major paired organs (UK). Cancer Causes Control 2006;17 (5) 655- 662
PubMed
Foley  PLanzer  DMarks  R Are solar keratoses more common on the driver's side? Br Med J 1986;293 (6538) 18
PubMed
Singer  RSHamilton  TAVoorhees  JJGriffiths  CE Association of asymmetrical facial photodamage with automobile driving. Arch Dermatol 1994;130 (1) 121- 123
PubMed
Bulliard  J-LDe Weck  DFisch  TBordoni  ALevi  F Detailed site distribution of melanoma and sunlight exposure: aetiological patterns from a Swiss series [published online ahead of print January 20, 2007]. Ann Oncol 2007;18 (4) 789- 79410.1093/annonc/mdl1490
PubMed
Bulliard  J-LLevi  F Site misclassification of melanomas in the shoulder region: an issue not to be “shrugged at”? Arch Dermatol 2005;141 (8) 1047- 1049
PubMed
Levi  FTe  VCRandimbison  LErler  GLa Vecchia  C Trends in skin cancer incidence in Vaud: an update, 1976-1998. Eur J Cancer Prev 2001;10 (4) 371- 373
PubMed

Figures

Tables

Table Graphic Jump LocationTable. Laterality (Left to Right Ratio) of 1661 Cutaneous Melanomas in 5 Swiss Regions (1995-2002) by Sex, Age Group, and Body Site

References

Garfinkel  LCraig  LSeidman  H An appraisal of left and right breast cancer. J Natl Cancer Inst 1959;23617- 631
PubMed
Roychoudhuri  RPutcha  VMoller  H Cancer and laterality: a study of the five major paired organs (UK). Cancer Causes Control 2006;17 (5) 655- 662
PubMed
Foley  PLanzer  DMarks  R Are solar keratoses more common on the driver's side? Br Med J 1986;293 (6538) 18
PubMed
Singer  RSHamilton  TAVoorhees  JJGriffiths  CE Association of asymmetrical facial photodamage with automobile driving. Arch Dermatol 1994;130 (1) 121- 123
PubMed
Bulliard  J-LDe Weck  DFisch  TBordoni  ALevi  F Detailed site distribution of melanoma and sunlight exposure: aetiological patterns from a Swiss series [published online ahead of print January 20, 2007]. Ann Oncol 2007;18 (4) 789- 79410.1093/annonc/mdl1490
PubMed
Bulliard  J-LLevi  F Site misclassification of melanomas in the shoulder region: an issue not to be “shrugged at”? Arch Dermatol 2005;141 (8) 1047- 1049
PubMed
Levi  FTe  VCRandimbison  LErler  GLa Vecchia  C Trends in skin cancer incidence in Vaud: an update, 1976-1998. Eur J Cancer Prev 2001;10 (4) 371- 373
PubMed

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