Treatments for atopic dermatitis include anti-inflammatory agents, immune modulators, phototherapy, and emollients. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are nuclear hormone receptors that have been recently linked to several genes involved in inflammation. These may reduce inflammatory mediators in the skin and regulate epidermal barrier homeostasis. In this retrospective review, Behshad et al demonstrated the safety and efficacy of rosiglitazone, a PPAR agonist, in 6 cases of severe atopic dermatitis that were unresponsive to first- and second-line therapies. These data suggest that the potential role of rosiglitazone in the treatment of atopic dermatitis merits further study in controlled trials.