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Review |

Azelaic Acid in the Treatment of Papulopustular Rosacea:  A Systematic Review of Randomized Controlled Trials FREE

Rosemarie H. Liu, BS; Molly K. Smith, MD; Sameh A. Basta, MD; Evan R. Farmer, MD
[+] Author Affiliations

Author Affiliations: Departments of Dermatology (Ms Liu and Drs Smith and Farmer) and Internal Medicine (Dr Basta), Eastern Virginia Medical School, and Sentara Healthcare (Dr Basta), Norfolk. Ms Liu is now with the Department of Dermatology, Yale University, New Haven, Conn; Dr Smith, Department of Dermatology, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio; and Dr Farmer, Departments of Dermatology and Pathology, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, and The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Md.


Arch Dermatol. 2006;142(8):1047-1052. doi:10.1001/archderm.142.8.1047.
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Objective  To evaluate the clinical efficacy of topical 20% azelaic acid cream and 15% azelaic acid gel compared with their respective vehicles and metronidazole gel in the treatment of papulopustular rosacea.

Data Sources  Electronic searches of MEDLINE, EMBASE, BIOSIS, and SciSearch through July or August 2004 and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials through 2004 (issue 3). We performed hand searches of reference lists, conference proceedings, and clinical trial databases. Experts in rosacea and azelaic acid were contacted.

Study Selection  Randomized controlled trials involving topical azelaic acid (cream or gel) for the treatment of rosacea compared with placebo or other topical treatments. Two authors independently examined the studies identified by the searches. Ten studies were identified, of which 5 were included (873 patients).

Data Extraction  Two authors independently extracted data from the included studies, then jointly assessed methodological quality using a quality assessment scale.

Data Synthesis  Because standard deviation data were not available for 4 of the 5 studies, a meta-analysis could not be conducted. Four of the 5 studies demonstrated significant decreases in mean inflammatory lesion count and erythema severity after treatment with azelaic acid compared with vehicle. None of the studies showed any significant decrease in telangiectasia severity.

Conclusions  Azelaic acid in 20% cream and 15% gel formulations appears to be effective in the treatment of papulopustular rosacea, particularly in regard to decreases in mean inflammatory lesion count and erythema severity. Compared with metronidazole, azelaic acid appears to be an equally effective, if not better, treatment option.

Rosacea is a common disorder of the facial skin that affects an estimated 14 million Americans. Because of its effects on personal appearance, it can cause significant psychological, social, and occupational problems if left untreated. In recent surveys by the National Rosacea Society,1 nearly 70% of patients with rosacea said this condition had lowered their self-confidence and self-esteem, and 41% reported that it had caused them to avoid public contact or cancel social engagements. Among those with severe symptoms, nearly 70% said the disorder had adversely affected their professional interactions, and nearly one third said they had even missed work because of their condition.

Rosacea is a chronic disorder affecting the skin and the eye. It is a syndrome of undetermined etiology characterized by vascular and papulopustular components mostly involving the face but occasionally the neck and upper trunk. Clinical findings include midfacial erythema, telangiectasias, papules and pustules, and sebaceous gland hypertrophy. Rosacea is characterized by episodic flushing of affected areas, which may be associated with triggers such as consumption of alcohol, hot drinks, or spicy foods. During inflammatory episodes, affected areas of the skin develop papules, pustules, and swelling. Rhinophyma is a late finding. The skin lesions are notable for the absence of comedones, which helps to distinguish this disorder from acne vulgaris.

Rosacea occurs most commonly in adults aged 30 to 60 years. More than 10% of the general population in the United States exhibits dermatologic characteristics of rosacea.2 Rare cases may also be found in children. Ocular involvement occurs in more than 50% of patients.3 Skin involvement in rosacea is characterized by blotchy or diffuse erythema, telangiectasias, papules, pustules, and sebaceous gland hypertrophy. The lesions tend to involve the nose, cheeks, chin, and central area of the forehead and may include the neck and chest. Initially, the hyperemia may be episodic, but after several months to years, it becomes chronic with the eventual development of telangiectasias. Rhinophyma, an irregular, lobulated thickening of the skin of the nose with follicular dilatation and a purplish red discoloration, may be a complication of long-standing involvement. Although the nose is the most common site of involvement, the cheeks, forehead, chin, or ears may also develop tissue hypertrophy. Subjective manifestations of rosacea are minimal, although some patients report a burning sensation during hyperemic episodes.

The cause of rosacea is poorly understood, although numerous theories have been offered. Hypotheses have included gastrointestinal, psychological, infectious, climatic, and immunological causes, although scientific evidence has not substantiated any of these as primary.4 Prevalent current theories involve Demodex folliculorum. This organism feeds on sebum, and increased numbers of mites have been found on patients with rosacea.5 Infection with Helicobacter pylori has also been proposed, and some reports show improvement of rosacea symptoms after eradication of this bacteria.6 Climate, specifically exposure to extremes of sun and cold, may also affect the course of the disease, but the role is not clear.

Moderate to severe papulopustular rosacea may be treated with oral doses of tetracyclines, which are often effective, with improvement evident within 2 to 4 months after commencement of therapy. For mild to moderate involvement, topical treatment with metronidazole cream or gel applied to the affected areas twice daily has been successful.7 More recently, studies have been performed with topical azelaic acid, a medication that has proven effective in the treatment of acne vulgaris.8

The exact mechanism of action of azelaic acid is not known. Azelaic acid has been shown to possess antimicrobial activity against Propionibacterium acnes and Staphylococcus epidermidis.9 This antimicrobial action may be attributable to inhibition of microbial cellular protein synthesis. Electron microscopic and immunohistochemical evaluation of skin biopsy specimens from human subjects treated with azelaic acid cream demonstrated a reduction in the thickness of the stratum corneum, a reduction in the number and size of keratohyalin granules, and a reduction in the amount and distribution of filaggrin in epidermal layers.10 Azelaic acid also possesses antityrosinase and antimitochondrial enzymatic activities. These may interrupt the hyperactivity of normal melanocytes and their resulting growth in melasma, a localized macular hyperpigmentation of facial or nuchal skin.11 The hypopigmentation action of azelaic acid may result, to a lesser extent, from its ability to scavenge free radicals that can cause hyperactivity of melanocytes.

The aim of this review was to evaluate the clinical efficacy of topical 20% azelaic acid cream and 15% azelaic acid gel compared with their respective vehicles in the treatment of papulopustular rosacea.

DATA SOURCES

A systematic search of the scientific literature from 1966 through July or August 2004 was conducted to identify all randomized controlled trials for topical azelaic acid for the treatment of rosacea compared with placebo or other topical treatments. Trials were identified by searches of MEDLINE (1966 to August 2004), EMBASE (1974 to August 2004), BIOSIS (1969 to July 2004), SciSearch (1990 to July 2004), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (2004 [issue 3]), conference proceedings (American Academy of Dermatology and Society for Investigative Dermatology), and ongoing clinical trial databases (Current Controlled Trials [http://www.controlled-trials.com] and ClinicalTrials.gov [http://www.clinicaltrials.gov/]). No language restrictions were applied. Studies that involved human or animal subjects were also included. Broad search terms were used to ensure that all potential studies involving azelaic acid for the treatment of rosacea were identified. The search terms are listed in Table 1. An alternate style for search terms is provided in Table 2.

The reference lists of all included studies and key review articles were searched to identify additional studies. At least 1 author from each of the 5 included studies was contacted to obtain data regarding standard deviation values of mean inflammatory lesion count before and after treatment with azelaic acid (cream or gel). Those authors and experts in the areas of rosacea and azelaic acid were consulted regarding their knowledge of further published and unpublished studies. A representative from the manufacturer of azelaic acid 20% cream (Azelex; Allergan Inc, Irvine, Calif) was contacted for information regarding unpublished and published studies and ongoing trials. The same information was also requested from a dermatologist involved in the clinical development of dermatologic products at Berlex Laboratories Inc (Wayne, NJ), a US affiliate of Schering AG (Berlin, Germany) that produces 20% azelaic acid cream (Finevin) and 15% azelaic acid gel (Finacea) in conjunction with Allergan Inc.

STUDY SELECTION

Based on the title and corresponding abstract obtained from the searches, studies were selected on the basis of the following inclusion criteria:

  • All randomized controlled trials comparing the efficacy of topical 20% azelaic acid cream or 15% azelaic acid gel at any dose with vehicle control formulations in subjects with rosacea.

  • Patients with a diagnosis of papulopustular rosacea, with no restrictions for sex or age.

  • Primary outcome measure of physician-assessed changes in rosacea severity as determined by counts of inflammatory lesions (papules and pustules).

  • Secondary outcome measures of physician- and/or device-assessed changes in rosacea severity, including severity of erythema and telangiectasia.

When it was uncertain whether a study met the inclusion criteria on the basis of the title and abstract alone, the entire article was reviewed. A study in Russian was translated by a Belarusan physician fluent in the language. Another study in German did not require translation because one of us (R.H.L.) could read the language. Two of us (R.H.L. and M.K.S.) conducted independent assessments of each study to determine their eligibility for inclusion in the review. Disagreements were resolved by discussion.

DATA EXTRACTION

Data from eligible studies were independently extracted by 2 of us (R.H.L. and M.K.S.) using predeveloped forms. Details extracted from each study included the following:

  • Study information: author(s), date of study, and study location.

  • Study characteristics: study type (randomized controlled trial, matched control or unmatched concurrent control, or historic control), whether an a priori power calculation was performed, method of randomization of patients, and number and reason(s) for withdrawals.

  • Patient characteristics: number of patients enrolled, age range (including mean age), sex, mean duration of rosacea, and inclusion and exclusion criteria.

  • Intervention details: care setting, treatment group, control, cointerventions, duration of intervention, person who delivered the intervention, and whether the person who delivered the intervention, the care, and the patient were blinded.

  • Outcome data: raw data on mean inflammatory lesion count, erythema severity, and telangiectasia severity; length of follow-up; and intervals at which outcome data were measured during follow-up.

  • Analysis: description of analysis used and whether comparisons with active or vehicle controls were made.

Two of us (R.H.L. and M.K.S.) jointly used the quality assessment instrument for clinical trials developed by Jadad et al12 to assess the methodological quality of the studies. Studies were given scores ranging from 0 (worst) to 8 (best) that were based on the following guidelines: randomization, double blinding, and description of withdrawals and dropouts (Table 3).1315 Four studies had a score of 8, and 1 study had a score of 7.

Table Graphic Jump LocationTable 3. Quality Assessment Scores for 5 Studies Comparing Azelaic Acid vs Vehicle*
DESCRIPTION OF STUDIES

Using the search strategy described in the preceding section, we identified 9 randomized controlled trials involving azelaic acid (20% cream or 15% gel formulations) in the treatment of rosacea. Of those trials, 2 studies compared topical azelaic acid with topical metronidazole and were therefore excluded from the review.16,17 Two other publications were duplicate studies (Hebert18 and Thiboutot et al19). The 5 remaining randomized controlled trials were included for systematic analysis (Table 4). One trial was conducted in Wales, and another was completed in Norway. The remaining 3 studies were conducted in the United States.

Table Graphic Jump LocationTable 4. Study Characteristics for 7 Studies Comparing Topical AZA vs Veh or Metro

All 873 patients enrolled in the included studies, had evidence of papulopustular rosacea as assessed by a physician. Three studies were conducted in the 1990s, and 2 since 2000. The number of participants in the studies ranged from 33 to 335, with a greater proportion of female participants in most of the studies. The treatment groups in the included studies were comparable at baseline with regard to the mean number of facial inflammatory lesions and the severity of erythema and telangiectasia. The duration of the trials ranged from 9 weeks to 3 months. The trial by Carmichael et al14 was a split-face comparison whereby patients applied azelaic acid cream to one half of the face and its identical-appearing vehicle to the other half. All other included studies involved separate groups of participants who were randomly assigned to receive azelaic acid or its identical-appearing vehicle. Application of azelaic acid or its vehicle was twice daily. Concomitant therapy that had the potential to influence the course of rosacea was specifically disallowed in all of the studies.

In addition to the primary outcome measure (mean number of inflammatory papules or pustules), all of the studies assessed other outcome measures such as the severity of erythema and telangiectasia. Because there are currently no standardized methods for evaluating papulopustular rosacea, there was great variability in the scoring of erythema intensity and telangiectasia (Table 4).1315

In all studies except one (Noel T. Bamford, MD, David E. Gargeness, PharmD, Colleen M. Reiner, Robert L. Tilden, DrPH, MPH, unpublished data, 1999), participants who were treated with azelaic acid cream or gel experienced significant reductions in mean inflammatory lesion counts compared with those treated with the respective vehicles (P<.05) (Table 4).1315 The study by Bamford et al showed significant reductions in the group treated with 20% azelaic acid cream and the control group (49% and 28%, respectively), with no significant difference in reduction between the groups. Although the included studies used some form of statistical test to evaluate the data, the standard deviation and/or standard error of continuous measurements were not available in any of the studies except for the unpublished study by Bamford et al. Despite the variability of ratings for erythema severity, there was an overall greater reduction in erythema severity in patients who used azelaic acid vs vehicle in 4 of the 5 studies (Table 4). The unpublished study by Bamford et al showed equal improvement in erythema severity for both the azelaic acid and control groups (32%). There was no significant improvement in telangiectasia severity noted among patients using azelaic acid or vehicle in any of the included studies. Compared with the vehicle, common treatment-related adverse effects associated with azelaic acid use consisted of local cutaneous irritation symptoms such as burning and stinging. In most cases, the symptoms were transient and mild to moderate in intensity.

LIMITATIONS OF THIS STUDY

This review had several limitations. Because the standard deviations of mean inflammatory lesion counts before and after treatment with 20% azelaic acid cream or 15% azelaic acid gel could not be obtained from most of the included studies, a meta-analysis could not be performed. Because standardized methods for evaluating the severity of erythema and telangiectasia in papulopustular rosacea do not currently exist, it could only be generalized that azelaic acid cream or gel reduces erythema and has minimal effect on telangiectasia. Ideally, a system similar to the Psoriasis Area and Severity Index should be developed to evaluate rosacea severity (number of inflammatory lesions and severity of erythema and telangiectasia). Thiboutot et al19 have developed a novel 7-point static investigator's global assessment scale that appears to be a promising evaluation system for rosacea.

Future studies should include standard deviations for data such as inflammatory lesion count to allow for objective comparisons of efficacy between azelaic acid and control treatments.

Azelaic acid has been shown to be effective in the treatment of acne vulgaris. In recent years, it has emerged as a potentially effective medication for treating the papulopustular form of rosacea. This systematic review sought to evaluate the clinical efficacy of topical 20% azelaic acid cream and 15% azelaic acid gel compared with their respective vehicles in the treatment of papulopustular rosacea.

The results of our review demonstrate that patients with papulopustular rosacea appear to derive substantial benefit with regard to decreased mean inflammatory lesion count when treated with azelaic acid cream or gel.

Azelaic acid has also been shown to be as effective as, if not better than, topical metronidazole, a standard of treatment for papulopustular rosacea. In 1999, Maddin17 conducted a single-center, randomized, double-blind study comparing topical 20% azelaic acid cream and topical 0.75% metronidazole cream. Both treatment groups experienced significant decreases in inflammatory lesion counts (mean number of lesions, 11.30 at baseline vs 2.43 after treatment for azelaic acid and 11.40 vs 3.49 for metronidazole; P = .43), although no statistically significant difference was observed between the 2 treatment groups. In a randomized, double-blind, parallel-group study conducted by Elewski et al16 in 2003, patients who received 15% azelaic acid gel demonstrated a significantly greater mean decrease in inflammatory lesion count (baseline to last visit at week 15) compared with those who received 0.75% metronidazole gel (P = .003). In addition, there was a greater reduction in overall facial erythema in the azelaic acid group (P = .02). The studies by Maddin17 and Elewski et al16 demonstrated no significant improvement in telangiectasia severity for the azelaic acid or the metronidazole group (Table 4). Although patients experienced minor local skin irritation with use of azelaic acid compared with metronidazole, local tolerability was high. The study by Maddin17 showed that although patients experienced trace stinging with application of azelaic acid cream, a significantly greater number of those patients preferred to use azelaic acid again compared with metronidazole cream (92% vs 66%; P = .005). The study by Elewski et al16 demonstrated that 89% of patients in the azelaic acid gel group rated their treatment as “good or acceptable despite minor irritation” vs 96% of patients in the metronidazole gel group.

The use of 20% azelaic acid cream or 15% azelaic acid gel appears to be effective in the treatment of papulopustular rosacea, particularly in regard to decreases in mean inflammatory lesion count and severity of erythema. Compared with metronidazole, azelaic acid appears to be an equally effective, if not better, treatment option.

Correspondence: Evan R. Farmer, MD, 580 Mowbray Arch, Norfolk, VA 23507 (farmerer@cox.net).

Financial Disclosure: None reported.

Accepted for Publication: March 14, 2006.

Author Contributions:Study concept and design: Smith and Farmer. Acquisition of data: Smith. Analysis and interpretation of data: Liu, Smith, and Basta. Drafting of the manuscript: Liu, Smith, and Basta. Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: Smith and Farmer. Administrative, technical, and material support: Smith. Study supervision: Basta and Farmer.

Acknowledgment: We thank April Adams Pace, MLS, and Kerrie Shaw, MS, MSLS, of the Eastern Virginia Medical School Brickell Library for their assistance with the electronic database searches. We thank Antoinette F. Hood, MD, for her comments on our manuscript.

 Feature 3: rosacea takes emotional toll but many learn how to cope. Rosacea Review Newsletter National Rosacea Society Web site, summer 1998http://www.rosacea.org/rr/1998/summer/article_3.phpAccessed Summer 1998
Wilkin  JK Rosacea: pathophysiology and treatment. Arch Dermatol 1994;130359- 362
PubMed Link to Article
Starr  PAHMcDonald  A Oculocutaneous aspects of rosacea. Proc R Soc Med 1969;629- 11
PubMed
Marks  R Concepts in the pathogenesis of rosacea. Br J Dermatol 1968;80170- 177
PubMed Link to Article
Marks  RJones  EW Disseminated rosacea. Br J Dermatol 1969;8116- 28
PubMed Link to Article
Marks  R Rosacea, flushing and perioral dermatitis. Champion  RHBurton  JLEbling  FJGeds.Textbook of Dermatology. Malden, Mass Blackwell Scientific Publications1993;1851- 1863
Wilkin  JK Use of topical products for maintaining remission in rosacea. Arch Dermatol 1999;13579- 80
PubMed Link to Article
Nguyen  QHBui  TP Azelaic acid: pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties and its therapeutic role in hyperpigmentary disorders and acne. Int J Dermatol 1995;3475- 84
PubMed Link to Article
Leeming  JPHolland  KTBojar  RA The in vitro antimicrobial effect of azelaic acid. Br J Dermatol 1986;115551- 556
PubMed Link to Article
Fitton  AGoa  KL Azelaic acid: a review of its pharmacological properties and therapeutic efficacy in acne and hyperpigmentary skin disorders. Drugs 1991;41780- 798
PubMed Link to Article
Breathnach  AS Pharmacological properties of azelaic acid. Clin Drug Invest 1995;10 ((suppl 2)) 27- 33
Link to Article
Jadad  ARMoore  RECarroll  D  et al.  Assessing the quality of reports of randomized clinical trials: is blinding necessary? Control Clin Trials 1996;171- 12
PubMed Link to Article
Bjerke  RFyrand  OGraupe  K Double-blind comparison of azelaic acid 20% cream and its vehicle in treatment of papulo-pustular rosacea. Acta Derm Venereol 1999;79456- 459
PubMed Link to Article
Carmichael  AMarks  RGraupe  KA  et al.  Topical azelaic acid in the treatment of rosacea. J Dermatol Treat 1993;4 ((suppl 1)) S19- S22
Link to Article
Thiboutot  DThieroff-Ekerdt  RGraupe  K Efficacy and safety of azelaic acid (15%) gel as a new treatment for papulopustular rosacea: results from two vehicle-controlled, randomized phase III studies. J Am Acad Dermatol 2003;48836- 845
PubMed Link to Article
Elewski  BEFleischer  AB  JrPariser  DM A comparison of 15% azelaic acid gel and 0.75% metronidazole gel in the topical treatment of papulopustular rosacea. Arch Dermatol 2003;1391444- 1450
PubMed Link to Article
Maddin  S A comparison of topical azelaic acid 20% cream and topical metronidazole 0.75% cream in the treatment of patients with papulopustular rosacea. J Am Acad Dermatol 1999;40961- 965
PubMed Link to Article
Hebert  AA Azelaic acid 15% gel reduces the intensity of erythema in patients with moderate papulopustular facial rosacea: data from two phase 3 trials.  Presented as a poster at: 61st Annual Meeting of the American Academy of Dermatology March 21-26, 2003 San Francisco, Calif
Thiboutot  DGraupe  KLavin  PTThieroff-Ekerdt  R A new static score to assess papulopustular (stage 2) rosacea: experience from 2 large, vehicle-controlled, phase 3 studies comparing a new azelaic acid 15% gel formulation with its vehicle.  Presented as a poster at: 61st Annual Meeting of the American Academy of Dermatology March 21-26, 2003 San Francisco, Calif

Figures

Tables

Table Graphic Jump LocationTable 3. Quality Assessment Scores for 5 Studies Comparing Azelaic Acid vs Vehicle*
Table Graphic Jump LocationTable 4. Study Characteristics for 7 Studies Comparing Topical AZA vs Veh or Metro

References

 Feature 3: rosacea takes emotional toll but many learn how to cope. Rosacea Review Newsletter National Rosacea Society Web site, summer 1998http://www.rosacea.org/rr/1998/summer/article_3.phpAccessed Summer 1998
Wilkin  JK Rosacea: pathophysiology and treatment. Arch Dermatol 1994;130359- 362
PubMed Link to Article
Starr  PAHMcDonald  A Oculocutaneous aspects of rosacea. Proc R Soc Med 1969;629- 11
PubMed
Marks  R Concepts in the pathogenesis of rosacea. Br J Dermatol 1968;80170- 177
PubMed Link to Article
Marks  RJones  EW Disseminated rosacea. Br J Dermatol 1969;8116- 28
PubMed Link to Article
Marks  R Rosacea, flushing and perioral dermatitis. Champion  RHBurton  JLEbling  FJGeds.Textbook of Dermatology. Malden, Mass Blackwell Scientific Publications1993;1851- 1863
Wilkin  JK Use of topical products for maintaining remission in rosacea. Arch Dermatol 1999;13579- 80
PubMed Link to Article
Nguyen  QHBui  TP Azelaic acid: pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties and its therapeutic role in hyperpigmentary disorders and acne. Int J Dermatol 1995;3475- 84
PubMed Link to Article
Leeming  JPHolland  KTBojar  RA The in vitro antimicrobial effect of azelaic acid. Br J Dermatol 1986;115551- 556
PubMed Link to Article
Fitton  AGoa  KL Azelaic acid: a review of its pharmacological properties and therapeutic efficacy in acne and hyperpigmentary skin disorders. Drugs 1991;41780- 798
PubMed Link to Article
Breathnach  AS Pharmacological properties of azelaic acid. Clin Drug Invest 1995;10 ((suppl 2)) 27- 33
Link to Article
Jadad  ARMoore  RECarroll  D  et al.  Assessing the quality of reports of randomized clinical trials: is blinding necessary? Control Clin Trials 1996;171- 12
PubMed Link to Article
Bjerke  RFyrand  OGraupe  K Double-blind comparison of azelaic acid 20% cream and its vehicle in treatment of papulo-pustular rosacea. Acta Derm Venereol 1999;79456- 459
PubMed Link to Article
Carmichael  AMarks  RGraupe  KA  et al.  Topical azelaic acid in the treatment of rosacea. J Dermatol Treat 1993;4 ((suppl 1)) S19- S22
Link to Article
Thiboutot  DThieroff-Ekerdt  RGraupe  K Efficacy and safety of azelaic acid (15%) gel as a new treatment for papulopustular rosacea: results from two vehicle-controlled, randomized phase III studies. J Am Acad Dermatol 2003;48836- 845
PubMed Link to Article
Elewski  BEFleischer  AB  JrPariser  DM A comparison of 15% azelaic acid gel and 0.75% metronidazole gel in the topical treatment of papulopustular rosacea. Arch Dermatol 2003;1391444- 1450
PubMed Link to Article
Maddin  S A comparison of topical azelaic acid 20% cream and topical metronidazole 0.75% cream in the treatment of patients with papulopustular rosacea. J Am Acad Dermatol 1999;40961- 965
PubMed Link to Article
Hebert  AA Azelaic acid 15% gel reduces the intensity of erythema in patients with moderate papulopustular facial rosacea: data from two phase 3 trials.  Presented as a poster at: 61st Annual Meeting of the American Academy of Dermatology March 21-26, 2003 San Francisco, Calif
Thiboutot  DGraupe  KLavin  PTThieroff-Ekerdt  R A new static score to assess papulopustular (stage 2) rosacea: experience from 2 large, vehicle-controlled, phase 3 studies comparing a new azelaic acid 15% gel formulation with its vehicle.  Presented as a poster at: 61st Annual Meeting of the American Academy of Dermatology March 21-26, 2003 San Francisco, Calif

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