Infective endocarditis (IE) is a rare disease with poor prognosis. When IE is suspected, skin examination is mandatory to look for a portal of entry and classic skin lesions to help diagnose and manage the condition.
To describe the prevalence of and factors associated with dermatological manifestations in patients with definite IE.
Observational, prospective, population-based epidemiological study between January 1 and December 31, 2008. Subsequently, collected dermatological data were subjected to post hoc analysis.
Setting and Participants
Patients (n = 497) diagnosed in 7 French regions and hospitalized in France for definite IE satisfying modified Duke criteria.
Main Outcomes and Measures
Patient and disease epidemiological information was collected, focusing on the most classic dermatological manifestations of IE (Osler nodes, Janeway lesions, purpura, and conjunctival hemorrhages). Disease outcome was also recorded.
Among 497 definite IE cases, 487 had known dermatological status. Of 487 cases, 58 (11.9%) had skin manifestations, including 39 (8.0%) with purpura, 13 (2.7%) with Osler nodes, 8 (1.6%) with Janeway lesions, and 3 (0.6%) with conjunctival hemorrhages (5 patients had 2 skin manifestations). Patients with skin manifestations had a higher rate of IE-related extracardiac complications than patients without skin manifestations, particularly cerebral emboli (32.8% vs 18.4%, P = .01), without increased mortality. Patients with purpura had larger cardiac vegetations (18.1 vs 13.7 mm, P = .01), and Janeway lesions were associated with more extracerebral emboli (75.0% vs 31.8%, P = .02).
Conclusions and Relevance
Specific skin manifestations of IE are associated with a higher risk of complications and should alert physicians to examine for extracardiac complications, notably with cerebral imaging.