While malignant melanoma (MM) incidence continues to rise, regular clinical skin examination (CSE) and skin self-examination (SSE) may improve detection of thinner, more curable tumors. Frequency of SSE is between 23% and 61% annually. In this cross-sectional, web-based survey, Kasparian et al report that, among individuals with no history of melanoma, greater frequency of SSE was associated with greater perceived risk of MM, greater perceived severity of the consequences of MM, greater confidence in ability to perform SSE, and greater perceived benefits of SSE. Among those with a personal or family history of MM, perceived benefit of SSE was a common determinant of SSE across all groups. The association of these psychosocial factors with SSE behaviors suggests opportunities for psychosocial interventions to be integrated into clinical care.