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Study | ONLINE FIRST

Legislation Restricting Access to Indoor Tanning Throughout the World FREE

Mary T. Pawlak, MD; Melanie Bui, PhD; Mahsa Amir, BS; Diane L. Burkhardt, JD; Alan K. Chen, JD; Robert P. Dellavalle, MD, PhD, MSPH
[+] Author Affiliations

Author Affiliations: Preventive Medicine Residency, Colorado School of Public Health, Aurora (Dr Pawlak); School of Medicine (Dr Bui and Ms Amir), Department of Dermatology (Dr Dellavalle), University of Colorado, Aurora; Sturm College of Law, University of Denver, Denver, Colorado (Drs Burkhardt and Chen); and Dermatology Service, Department of Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Denver (Dr Dellavalle).


Arch Dermatol. 2012;148(9):1006-1012. doi:10.1001/archdermatol.2012.2080.
Text Size: A A A
Published online

Objective To compile current legislation of indoor tanning throughout the world and compare them with existing legislation found in 2003.

Design Cross-sectional study.

Setting International.

Participants All nations with legislation regarding access to indoor tanning found through web-based Internet search.

Main Outcome Measures Number of nations with legislation and changes to laws regarding access to indoor tanning since 2003.

Results The number of countries with nationwide indoor tanning legislation restricting youth 18 years or younger increased from 2 countries in 2003 to 11 countries in 2011. Six states or territories in Australia restricted indoor tanning in all minors; a province and a region in Canada implemented youth tanning laws; and 8 states, in addition to 3 preexisting state laws, in the United States implemented indoor tanning legislation since 2003.

Conclusion Since 2003, access to indoor tanning has become increasingly restricted around the world.

Figures in this Article

In the 1970s, commercial tanning beds for cosmetic use were introduced to the public. In less than 3 decades, over half of Northern European men and women ages 18 to 50 years reported using tanning beds.1 Tanning bed use varies by location and demographics. For instance, the prevalence of ever having used indoor tanning was 5% in Northern Italy in 1986, while the prevalence was 57% in Swedish women in 2001.2 On average, 1 million people use tanning beds per day in the United States, and nearly 28 million people use tanning beds annually.3,4 From the 2005 National Health Interview data, Heckman et al5 found that 20% of people ages 18 to 29 years reported tanning. While UV phototherapy is prescribed to treat numerous pathologic skin conditions, including psoriasis, the legislation described herein applies to medically unsupervised commercial indoor tanning salons.

Long-term health risks of indoor tanning are premature aging, immune suppression, cataract and other eye injuries, and skin cancers.6 Skin cancer is the most common cancer in the United States, and approximately 20% of Americans will develop skin cancer in their lifetime.7 Evidence strongly points to the association of tanning bed use with squamous cell and basal cell carcinomas, and results are increasingly demonstrating an association between tanning bed use and melanoma.811 Risk factors of melanoma are family history, physical characteristics, nevi, moles, and UV light. While nonmodifiable factors increase the relative risks of melanoma from 1.4 to 11.0 times, UV light, the only modifiable risk factor, increases relative risk of melanoma by 1.8 times.12

Studies performed in the United States and Europe reported an increased risk of melanoma in tanning bed users.11,1315 Since the advent of tanning beds, the prevalence of tanning bed use and melanoma are rising, particularly in women ages 15 to 39 years. A study conducted with the Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results database demonstrated a 2.7% annual increase of melanoma from 1992 to 2004.14

In 2003, the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection provided recommendations against the use of UV-emitting appliances for nonmedical purposes and classified youth 18 years or younger as a high-risk group.16 In 2007, the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) presented a meta-analysis demonstrating a 75% increased risk of melanoma with the use of tanning beds before the age of 30 years.17 Then in 2009, the World Health Organization (WHO) reclassified all forms of sunlamps, tanning beds, and UV light as class 1 carcinogens, which are known to cause cancer to humans.18,19 In addition, in the United States, the American Medical Association and American Academy of Dermatology recommended restricting indoor tanning for youth 18 years or younger.18,20 Such recognition paved the way for increasing support to restrict access to indoor tanning.

In 2003, a study compared youth access laws of indoor tanning with the more established youth access laws regarding tobacco use.21 This study found more variability in the access laws regulating tanning than in those restricting tobacco use in minors and called for uniform age restrictions to indoor tanning in an effort to reduce uninformed carcinogen exposure.21 The study, which originally included rapidly evolving legislation from 6 countries was updated in 2007 to cover 25 states and 8 countries.22 Our objective in this study was to compile a comprehensive list of 2011 legislation of indoor tanning restrictions and compare them with 2003 statutes throughout the world.

From January 2011 to June 2011, a web-based search using Internet search engines Google and Yahoo! was conducted on access to indoor tanning. Computerized searches for the terms “indoor tanning,” “tanning bed,” “sunbed,” “radiation,” “solarium,” “statues,” “legislation,” “law,” and “bylaw.”

Preliminary search results were presented at the 22nd World Congress of Dermatology on May 26, 2011, in Seoul, Korea, and information and verification were elicited from attendees through an ad hoc inquiry. Twenty dermatologists attended the presentation, and representatives from Ireland and the European Academy of Dermatology and Venerology provided input.

France was the first country to institute an age restriction on indoor tanning for youth 18 years or younger in 1997, and Brazil followed suit in 2002.23 By 2003, France, Brazil, and the province of New Brunswick in Canada had legislation restricting indoor tanning for youth 18 years or younger (Figure 1). Three states in the United States had indoor tanning age restrictions for youth at varying ages in 2003: Wisconsin restricted those 16 years or younger, Illinois restricted those 14 years or younger, and Texas restricted those 13 years or younger from indoor tanning.

Place holder to copy figure label and caption
Graphic Jump Location

Figure 1. The 2003 international distribution of indoor tanning restrictions.

By 2011, Brazil banned indoor tanning for all age groups (Figure 2). The number of countries that had nationwide indoor tanning laws for youth 18 years or younger increased from 2 countries (France and Brazil) in 2003 to 11 countries in 2011 (Table 1). These 11 countries are France, Spain, Portugal, Germany, Austria, Belgium, England, Wales, Northern Ireland, Scotland, and Brazil. In Canada, while the province of New Brunswick no longer restricted youth indoor tanning, the province of Nova Scotia instituted a law restricting youth 19 years or younger, and the Capital Regional District of British Columbia restricted youth 18 years or younger. Six states or territories in Australia added legislation for youth 18 years or younger. The number of states in the United States that had indoor tanning legislation for youth increased from 3 states in 2003 to 11 states in 2011 (Table 2). California increased the indoor tanning restriction to youth 18 years or younger and became the first state in the United States to restrict indoor tanning to all minors. Of the remaining 39 states, 21 states require parental consent or accompaniment for tanning bed use.

Place holder to copy figure label and caption
Graphic Jump Location

Figure 2. The 2011 international distribution of indoor tanning restrictions.

Table Graphic Jump LocationTable 1. International Restrictions on Indoor Tanning by Countrya
Table Graphic Jump LocationTable 2. US Restrictions on Indoor Tanning by Statea

The meta-analysis presented by the IARC demonstrated an increased risk of melanoma with the use of tanning beds before the age of 30.17 This IARC study and the reclassification of sunlamps, tanning beds, and UV light as class 1 carcinogens by WHO catalyzed increasing international support for age restrictions on youth indoor tanning.18,19

In addition, several studies were published that reinforced the association between indoor tanning and melanoma in 2010 and 2011. Veierød et al38 followed a cohort of Scandinavian women for 14 years and reported a 38% increased risk of melanoma in women younger than 40 years who used a tanning bed 1 or more times monthly in any decade. Furthermore, Lazovich et al11 reported a dose-response relationship between indoor tanning and melanoma. Compared with nonusers of tanning beds, the risk of melanoma was 1.3 times greater for people who used tanning beds for 1 to 10 sessions, 1.8 times greater for people who used tanning beds for 11 to 24 sessions, and 2.7 times greater for people who used tanning beds more than 100 sessions. A recent Swedish cohort study39 demonstrated negative associations of solar UV exposure with all-cause mortality and cardiovascular mortality, but positive associations of artificial UV exposure with all-cause mortality and cardiovascular mortality. The rationale for this remains unknown, and the researchers called for further investigation into the effects and differences of natural and artificial UV radiation.40

The effects of youth indoor tanning legislation are currently being evaluated for efficacy. Hirst et al41 estimated that restricting indoor tanning to minors has the potential to prevent skin cancers and related medical costs. For instance, adherence to the indoor tanning age restriction in Australia could prevent 18 to 30 melanomas and 200 to 251 squamous cell carcinomas per 100 000 individuals and avoid associated costs of over A$250 000 per 100 000 individuals. Another study, conducted by Mayer et al,15 described factors influencing indoor tanning rates at multiple levels, including environmental and policy levels. It found increasing indoor tanning use with increasing age in adolescents. An absolute 18.3% increase in tanning was found for ages 14 to 17 years. Increased tanning in older adolescents may be the result of a number of factors, such as peer and parental influence, proximity of salons to schools and homes, and lack of tanning restrictions for older adolescents. As demonstrated in our study, many states require only parental consent or parental accompaniment and do not restrict indoor tanning for older adolescents. We agree with Mayer et al15 that legislation restricting all minors has a greater impact in reducing youth indoor tanning than legislation requiring only parental consent or parental accompaniment. Currently, 21 states require only parental consent or accompaniment for tanning bed use. Strong lobbying efforts by the tanning bed industry and proceedings after a bill was filed, including protracted debates, were cited as 2 of the strongest barriers against passing legislation restricting indoor tanning.42

Recently, New Brunswick's government failed to maintain its ban on the use of tanning beds for those younger than 18 years. Instead, voluntary guidelines were imposed that stated that those younger than 18 years should not be allowed in tanning beds. Although the exact reason for this change is unclear, it may reflect difficulties involved with passing tanning bed legislation as seen in the United States and later implementation of these regulations.42,43

Other interventions could assist in decreasing youth indoor tanning, including promoting public health announcements, implementing a tanning bed use tax, restricting marketing directed toward youth, restricting the location of tanning salons, and mandating education for tanning bed users. Although it is difficult to establish the exact role and value of mass media interventions, such as public health announcements through television, radio, billboards, and newspapers, on tobacco cessation, various studies showed positive results on smoking behavior for up to 8 years after the campaign.44 In 2010, the United States implemented a 10% tax on tanning services. It is yet to be seen how effective the tax will be in decreasing youth indoor tanning. However, an absolute increase of 10% tax on tobacco products demonstrated decreased smoking by at least 4%.45

Another study demonstrated that tanning industries use direct advertisements to youth, particularly in schools.46 Restricting direct marketing in school newspapers and tanning salon locations near schools could further reduce youth tanning. In addition, several tanning safety tools are available, such as educational videos that describe individual tanning users who have developed melanoma and UV photography to demonstrate existing sun damage, but these tools are not required for educating youth in tanning salons before tanning bed use.47,48 Together, restriction policies and community interventions will have a greater impact on decreasing indoor tanning in youths.

Since 2003, youth access to indoor tanning has become increasingly restricted throughout the world as accumulating evidence demonstrated an association between melanoma and indoor tanning. Additional countries and states are developing indoor tanning restrictions or making their existing legislation more restrictive. In Australia, starting in 2015, New South Wales will ban all age groups from indoor tanning. In Europe, the Republic of Ireland and Finland are developing youth access legislation. Furthermore, 16 states in the United States are considering restricting indoor tanning access for individuals 18 years or younger.

Indoor tanning legislation is constantly evolving, and the National Conference of State Legislatures provides an updated web registry of indoor tanning legislation in the United States. We recommend a similar web registry for legislation throughout the world. This indoor tanning legislation registry would enable posting of current indoor tanning policies and assist nations to collaborate in advocacy efforts.

Correspondence: Robert P. Dellavalle, MD, PhD, MSPH, Dermatology Service, Department of Veteran Affairs Medical Center, 1055 Clermont St, PO Box 165, Denver, CO 80220 (robert.dellavalle@ucdenver.edu).

Accepted for Publication: May 10, 2012.

Published Online: July 16, 2012. doi:10.1001/archdermatol.2012.2080

Author Contributions: All authors had full access to all of the data in the study and take responsibility for the integrity of the data and the accuracy of the data analysis. Study concept and design: Pawlak and Dellavalle. Acquisition of data: Pawlak and Burkhardt. Analysis and interpretation of data: Pawlak, Bui, Amir, Chen, and Dellavalle. Drafting of the manuscript: Pawlak. Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: Pawlak, Bui, Amir, Burkhardt, Chen, and Dellavalle. Administrative, technical, and material support: Pawlak, Burkhardt, and Dellavalle. Study supervision: Chen and Dellavalle.

Financial Disclosure: None reported.

Funding/Support: Dr Pawlak was supported in part by Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA) grant No. D33HP02610 to the University of Colorado Preventive Medicine Residency Program.

Disclaimer: The opinions expressed in this article represent those of the authors and not of the government of the United States. Its contents are solely the responsibility of the authors and do not necessarily represent the official views of HRSA.

Previous Presentations: The results of this study were presented at the World Congress of Dermatology; May 26, 2011; Seoul, Korea; and the American Academy of Dermatology Conference; March 16-20, 2012; San Diego, California.

Additional Contributions: The figures were made by Kemp Weston.

Bataille V, Boniol M, De Vries E,  et al.  A multicentre epidemiological study on sunbed use and cutaneous melanoma in Europe.  Eur J Cancer. 2005;41(14):2141-2149
PubMed   |  Link to Article
International Agency for Research on Cancer.  Exposure to artificial UV radiation and skin cancer: IARC Working Group Reports. http://www.iarc.fr/en/publications/pdfs-online/wrk/wrk1/ArtificialUVRad&SkinCancer.pdf. Accessed May 24, 2011
Whitmore SE, Morison WL, Potten CS, Chadwick C. Tanning salon exposure and molecular alterations.  J Am Acad Dermatol. 2001;44(5):775-780
PubMed   |  Link to Article
Kwon HT, Mayer JA, Walker KK, Yu H, Lewis EC, Belch GE. Promotion of frequent tanning sessions by indoor tanning facilities: two studies.  J Am Acad Dermatol. 2002;46(5):700-705
PubMed   |  Link to Article
Heckman CJ, Coups EJ, Manne SL. Prevalence and correlates of indoor tanning among US adults.  J Am Acad Dermatol. 2008;58(5):769-780
PubMed   |  Link to Article
US Food and Drug Administration.  Indoor tanning: the risk of ultraviolet radiation. http://www.fda.gov/downloads/ForConsumers/ConsumerUpdates/UCM190664.pdf. Accessed June 2, 2011
Robinson JK. Sun exposure, sun protection, and vitamin D.  JAMA. 2005;294(12):1541-1543
PubMed   |  Link to Article
Rogers HW, Weinstock MA, Harris AR,  et al.  Incidence estimate of nonmelanoma skin cancer in the United States, 2006.  Arch Dermatol. 2010;146(3):283-287
PubMed   |  Link to Article
Karagas MR, Stannard VA, Mott LA, Slattery MJ, Spencer SK, Weinstock MA. Use of tanning devices and risk of basal cell and squamous cell skin cancers.  J Natl Cancer Inst. 2002;94(3):224-226
PubMed   |  Link to Article
Ting W, Schultz K, Cac NN, Peterson M, Walling HW. Tanning bed exposure increases the risk of malignant melanoma.  Int J Dermatol. 2007;46(12):1253-1257
PubMed   |  Link to Article
Lazovich D, Vogel RI, Berwick M, Weinstock MA, Anderson KE, Warshaw EM. Indoor tanning and risk of melanoma: a case-control study in a highly exposed population.  Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2010;19(6):1557-1568
PubMed   |  Link to Article
Newton-Bishop JA. The epidemiology, aetiology and prevention of melanoma. In: Rajpar S, Marsden J, eds. ABC of Skin Cancer. Boston, MA: BMJ Books; 2008:1-4
Nielsen K, Måsbäck A, Olsson H, Ingvar C. A prospective, population-based study of 40,000 women regarding host factors, UV exposure and sunbed use in relation to risk and anatomic site of cutaneous melanoma.  Int J Cancer. 2012;131(3):706-715
PubMed   |  Link to Article
Purdue MP, Freeman LE, Anderson WF, Tucker MA. Recent trends in incidence of cutaneous melanoma among US Caucasian young adults.  J Invest Dermatol. 2008;128(12):2905-2908
PubMed   |  Link to Article
Mayer JA, Woodruff SI, Slymen DJ,  et al.  Adolescents' use of indoor tanning: a large-scale evaluation of psychosocial, environmental, and policy-level correlates.  Am J Public Health. 2011;101(5):930-938
PubMed   |  Link to Article
International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection.  Guidelines on limits of exposure to ultraviolet radiation of wavelengths between 180 nm and 400 nm (incoherent optical radiation).  Health Phys. 2004;87(2):171-186
PubMed   |  Link to Article
International Agency for Research on Cancer Working Group on artificial ultraviolet (UV) light and skin cancer.  The association of use of sunbeds with cutaneous malignant melanoma and other skin cancers: a systematic review.  Int J Cancer. 2007;120(5):1116-1122
PubMed
American Academy of Dermatology.  Position statement on indoor tanning. http://www.aad.org/forms/policies/Uploads/PS/PS-Indoor%20Tanning%2011-16-09.pdf. Accessed January 30, 2012
 WHO: tanning beds cause cancer. http://www.webmd.com/healthy-beauty/news/20090728/who-tanning-beds-cause-cancer. Accessed June 13, 2012
Moyer CS. New guidelines issued to thwart skin cancer in fair-skinned people. American Medical News. http://www.ama-assn.org/amednews/2011/11/21/hlsc1123.htm. Accessed January 30, 2012
Dellavalle RP, Parker ER, Cersonsky N,  et al.  Youth access laws: in the dark at the tanning parlor?  Arch Dermatol. 2003;139(4):443-448
PubMed   |  Link to Article
McLaughlin JA, Francis SO, Burkhardt DL, Dellavalle RP. Indoor UV tanning youth access laws: update 2007.  Arch Dermatol. 2007;143(4):529-532
PubMed   |  Link to Article
Australian Capital Territory Government Health.  Tanning units. http://www.health.act.gov.au/health-services/public-health/health-protection-service/radiation-safety/tanning-units. Accessed April 13, 2011
Tebbutt C. Radiation Control Amendment (Tanning Units) Regulation 2009. http://www.legislation.nsw.gov.au/sessionalview/sessional/sr/2009-212.pdf. Accessed April 29, 2011
Queensland.  Radiation Safety Amendment Regulation (No. 1) 2009. http://www.legislation.qld.gov.au/LEGISLTN/SLS/2009/09SL228.pdf. Accessed April 16, 2011
Tasmania Department of Health and Human Services.  New solarium regulations. http://www.dhhs.tas.gov.au/news_and_media/new__solarium_regulation. Accessed April 13, 2011
 Government of South Australia. Radiation Protection and Control (Cosmetic Tanning Units) Regulations 2008. http://www.legislation.sa.gov.au/LZ/C/R/RADIATION%20PROTECTION%20AND%20CONTROL%20(COSMETIC%20TANNING%20UNITS)%20REGULATIONS%202008/CURRENT/2008.23.UN.PDF. Accessed April 11, 2011
State Government of Victoria.  New solarium regulations for Victoria. http://www.vic.gov.au/news-detail/new-solarium-regulations-for-victoria.html. Accessed April 11, 2011
Austrian Federal Chancellery.  Federal Law Journal for the Republic of Austria. http://www.ris.bka.gv.at/Dokumente/BgblAuth/BGBLA_2010_II_106/BGBLA_2010_II_106.html. Accessed June 18, 2011
Stuk Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority.  Recommendation of the Finnish, Swedish, Icelandic and Norwegian Radiation Safety Authorities regarding prohibition of sunbed/solarium services to people under the age of 18 years. http://www.stuk.fi/sateilytietoa/sateilevat_laitteet/fi_FI/solarium/_files/83199564311494889/default/recommendation-sunbed_2009.pdf. Accessed February 23, 2011
National Agency for Sanitary Vigilance Agency.  Brazil banned the cosmetic use of tanning beds. http://www.anvisa.gov.br/divulga/noticias/2009/111109.htm. Accessed January 11, 2011
Government of Nova Scotia.  Tanning bed use restricted in Nova Scotia. http://www.gov.ns.ca/news/details.asp?id=20110531007. Accessed May 31, 201
Capital Regional District.  CRD board passes tanning bylaw. http://www.crd.bc.ca/media/2011-01-12-tanning-bylaw.htm. Accessed January 15, 2011
National Archives.  Sunbeds (Regulation) Act. http://www.legislation.gov.uk/ukpga/2010/20/section/2. Accessed February 3, 2011
Northern Ireland Assembly.  Bills introduced in the assembly. http://archive.niassembly.gov.uk/legislation/primary/assleg10.htm. Accessed May 5, 2011
National Conference of State Legislatures.  Tanning restriction for minor: a state-by-state comparison. http://www.ncsl.org/default.aspx?tabid=14394. Accessed January 15, 2011
 Vermont becomes second state in the nation to prohibit indoor tanning for minors. http://www.aad.org/stories-and-news/news-releases/vermont-becomes-second-state-in-the-nation-to-prohibit-indoor-tanning-for-minors. American Academy of Dermatology website. Accessed June 5, 2012
Veierød MB, Adami HO, Lund E, Armstrong BK, Weiderpass E. Sun and solarium exposure and melanoma risk: effects of age, pigmentary characteristics, and nevi.  Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2010;19(1):111-120
PubMed   |  Link to Article
Yang L, Lof M, Veierød MB, Sandin S, Adami H-O, Weiderpass E. Ultraviolet exposure and mortality among women in Sweden.  Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2011;20(4):683-690
PubMed   |  Link to Article
Berwick M. Can UV exposure reduce mortality?  Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2011;20(4):582-584
PubMed   |  Link to Article
Hirst N, Gordon L, Gies P, Green AC. Estimation of avoidable skin cancers and cost-savings to government associated with regulation of the solarium industry in Australia.  Health Policy. 2009;89(3):303-311
PubMed   |  Link to Article
Obayan B, Geller AC, Resnick EA, Demierre MF. Enacting legislation to restrict youth access to tanning beds: a survey of advocates and sponsoring legislators.  J Am Acad Dermatol. 2010;63(1):63-70
PubMed   |  Link to Article
CBC NEWS.  New Brunswick's voluntary tanning rules applauded. http://www.cbc.ca/news/canada/new-brunswick/story/2011/01/17/nb-tanning-rules-959.html. Accessed March 6, 2012
Bala M, Strzeszynski L, Cahill K. Mass media interventions for smoking cessation in adults. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. http://www.cmtabaquismo.com.ar/documentos/Balacochrane%20sobre%20intervenciones%20en%20los%20medios.pdf
Jha P, Chaloupka FJ. The economics of global tobacco control.  BMJ. 2000;321(7257):358-361
PubMed   |  Link to Article
Freeman S, Francis S, Lundahl K, Bowland T, Dellavalle RP. UV tanning advertisements in high school newspapers.  Arch Dermatol. 2006;142(4):460-462
PubMed   |  Link to Article
Gamble RG, Aalborg J, Asdigian NL,  et al.  Severity of sun damage in full-face ultraviolet photographs of 12 year-old children relates to phenotypic skin cancer risk factors. [Abstract 240].  J Invest Dermatol. 2011;131:S40
Reagan D. Donna's story [video]. www.youtube.com/watch?v=zYzfldQ3OU0. Accessed February 24, 2011

Figures

Place holder to copy figure label and caption
Graphic Jump Location

Figure 1. The 2003 international distribution of indoor tanning restrictions.

Place holder to copy figure label and caption
Graphic Jump Location

Figure 2. The 2011 international distribution of indoor tanning restrictions.

Tables

Table Graphic Jump LocationTable 1. International Restrictions on Indoor Tanning by Countrya
Table Graphic Jump LocationTable 2. US Restrictions on Indoor Tanning by Statea

References

Bataille V, Boniol M, De Vries E,  et al.  A multicentre epidemiological study on sunbed use and cutaneous melanoma in Europe.  Eur J Cancer. 2005;41(14):2141-2149
PubMed   |  Link to Article
International Agency for Research on Cancer.  Exposure to artificial UV radiation and skin cancer: IARC Working Group Reports. http://www.iarc.fr/en/publications/pdfs-online/wrk/wrk1/ArtificialUVRad&SkinCancer.pdf. Accessed May 24, 2011
Whitmore SE, Morison WL, Potten CS, Chadwick C. Tanning salon exposure and molecular alterations.  J Am Acad Dermatol. 2001;44(5):775-780
PubMed   |  Link to Article
Kwon HT, Mayer JA, Walker KK, Yu H, Lewis EC, Belch GE. Promotion of frequent tanning sessions by indoor tanning facilities: two studies.  J Am Acad Dermatol. 2002;46(5):700-705
PubMed   |  Link to Article
Heckman CJ, Coups EJ, Manne SL. Prevalence and correlates of indoor tanning among US adults.  J Am Acad Dermatol. 2008;58(5):769-780
PubMed   |  Link to Article
US Food and Drug Administration.  Indoor tanning: the risk of ultraviolet radiation. http://www.fda.gov/downloads/ForConsumers/ConsumerUpdates/UCM190664.pdf. Accessed June 2, 2011
Robinson JK. Sun exposure, sun protection, and vitamin D.  JAMA. 2005;294(12):1541-1543
PubMed   |  Link to Article
Rogers HW, Weinstock MA, Harris AR,  et al.  Incidence estimate of nonmelanoma skin cancer in the United States, 2006.  Arch Dermatol. 2010;146(3):283-287
PubMed   |  Link to Article
Karagas MR, Stannard VA, Mott LA, Slattery MJ, Spencer SK, Weinstock MA. Use of tanning devices and risk of basal cell and squamous cell skin cancers.  J Natl Cancer Inst. 2002;94(3):224-226
PubMed   |  Link to Article
Ting W, Schultz K, Cac NN, Peterson M, Walling HW. Tanning bed exposure increases the risk of malignant melanoma.  Int J Dermatol. 2007;46(12):1253-1257
PubMed   |  Link to Article
Lazovich D, Vogel RI, Berwick M, Weinstock MA, Anderson KE, Warshaw EM. Indoor tanning and risk of melanoma: a case-control study in a highly exposed population.  Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2010;19(6):1557-1568
PubMed   |  Link to Article
Newton-Bishop JA. The epidemiology, aetiology and prevention of melanoma. In: Rajpar S, Marsden J, eds. ABC of Skin Cancer. Boston, MA: BMJ Books; 2008:1-4
Nielsen K, Måsbäck A, Olsson H, Ingvar C. A prospective, population-based study of 40,000 women regarding host factors, UV exposure and sunbed use in relation to risk and anatomic site of cutaneous melanoma.  Int J Cancer. 2012;131(3):706-715
PubMed   |  Link to Article
Purdue MP, Freeman LE, Anderson WF, Tucker MA. Recent trends in incidence of cutaneous melanoma among US Caucasian young adults.  J Invest Dermatol. 2008;128(12):2905-2908
PubMed   |  Link to Article
Mayer JA, Woodruff SI, Slymen DJ,  et al.  Adolescents' use of indoor tanning: a large-scale evaluation of psychosocial, environmental, and policy-level correlates.  Am J Public Health. 2011;101(5):930-938
PubMed   |  Link to Article
International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection.  Guidelines on limits of exposure to ultraviolet radiation of wavelengths between 180 nm and 400 nm (incoherent optical radiation).  Health Phys. 2004;87(2):171-186
PubMed   |  Link to Article
International Agency for Research on Cancer Working Group on artificial ultraviolet (UV) light and skin cancer.  The association of use of sunbeds with cutaneous malignant melanoma and other skin cancers: a systematic review.  Int J Cancer. 2007;120(5):1116-1122
PubMed
American Academy of Dermatology.  Position statement on indoor tanning. http://www.aad.org/forms/policies/Uploads/PS/PS-Indoor%20Tanning%2011-16-09.pdf. Accessed January 30, 2012
 WHO: tanning beds cause cancer. http://www.webmd.com/healthy-beauty/news/20090728/who-tanning-beds-cause-cancer. Accessed June 13, 2012
Moyer CS. New guidelines issued to thwart skin cancer in fair-skinned people. American Medical News. http://www.ama-assn.org/amednews/2011/11/21/hlsc1123.htm. Accessed January 30, 2012
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