Dermatology has a long-standing affinity for acronyms. From AGEP (acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis) to XP (xeroderma pigmentosum), acronyms have become a part of our dermatology lexicon, perhaps occasionally to the consternation of our colleagues in other specialties. In this issue, Brau-Javier et al1 describe a patient with a severe pustular skin disease called “DIRA ” —an acronym for “deficiency of the interleukin 1 (IL-1) receptor antagonist, ” which we first described in 9 pediatric patients in 2009.2 As its name suggests, DIRA is a new autoinflammatory disease linked to activation of the IL-1 pathway (Figure), joining the ranks of other IL-1 –associated conditions with a prominent dermatologic component, foremost the cryopyrin-associated periodic fever syndromes (CAPS) —familial cold –induced autoinflammatory syndrome (FCAS), Muckle-Wells syndrome, and neonatal-onset multisystem inflammatory disease (NOMID).3
Figure. The pathogenesis of DIRA (deficiency of the interleukin 1 [IL-1] receptor [IL-1R] antagonist) and DITRA (deficiency of the IL-36 receptor [IL-36R] antagonist). Loss of the IL-1R antagonist leads to unopposed proinflammatory signaling by IL-1 α and IL-1 β in patients with DIRA. In DITRA, loss of the IL-36R antagonist results in analogous unchecked signaling by IL-36 α, IL-36 β, and IL-36 γ at the IL-36R (right panel). Patients with DIRA from Puerto Rico harbor a genomic deletion in both the IL-1R antagonist (left panel) and IL-36R antagonist (center panel). Because the IL-36 proinflammatory signaling isoforms are also deleted, a functional consequence of loss of the IL-36R antagonist in Puerto Rican patients with DIRA is unlikely.
Thank you for submitting a comment on this article. It will be reviewed by JAMA Dermatology editors. You will be notified when your comment has been published. Comments should not exceed 500 words of text and 10 references.
Do not submit personal medical questions or information that could identify a specific patient, questions about a particular case, or general inquiries to an author. Only content that has not been published, posted, or submitted elsewhere should be submitted. By submitting this Comment, you and any coauthors transfer copyright to the journal if your Comment is posted.
* = Required Field
Disclosure of Any Conflicts of Interest*
Indicate all relevant conflicts of interest of each author below, including all relevant financial interests, activities, and relationships within the past 3 years including, but not limited to, employment, affiliation, grants or funding, consultancies, honoraria or payment, speakers’ bureaus, stock ownership or options, expert testimony, royalties, donation of medical equipment, or patents planned, pending, or issued. If all authors have none, check "No potential conflicts or relevant financial interests" in the box below. Please also indicate any funding received in support of this work. The information will be posted with your response.
Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.
Download citation file:
Web of Science® Times Cited: 13
Customize your page view by dragging & repositioning the boxes below.
More Listings atJAMACareerCenter.com >
Enter your username and email address. We'll send you a link to reset your password.
Enter your username and email address. We'll send instructions on how to reset your password to the email address we have on record.
Athens and Shibboleth are access management services that provide single sign-on to protected resources. They replace the multiple user names and passwords necessary to access subscription-based content with a single user name and password that can be entered once per session. It operates independently of a user's location or IP address. If your institution uses Athens or Shibboleth authentication, please contact your site administrator to receive your user name and password.