Immunohistochemical analysis was performed using the streptavidin/peroxidase technique as previously described.5 Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded cutaneous sections were incubated overnight at 4 °C with the primary antibody. Fourteen different monoclonal antibodies were used to explore innate immunity: anti –TLR-2, -3, -4, -7, and -9 (8 μg/mL each; all from Santa Cruz Biotechnology, Inc, Santa Cruz, California); anti –ICAM-1 (5 μg/mL; Beckman Coulter, Inc, Brea, California); anti-TNF (1/50; Diagnostic BioSystems, Pleasanton, California); anti –IL-6 (10 μg/mL; AbD Serotec, Oxford, England); anti –IL-10 (10 μg/mL; R &D Systems, Inc, Minneapolis, Minnesota); anti –TGF- β (10 μg/mL; AbD Serotec); anti – α-MSH (1/50; PROGEN Biotechnik GmbH, Heidelberg, Germany); anti – β-defensin 2 and 4 ( β-defensin 2, 1/50, and β-defensin 4, 5 μg/mL; both from Abcam, San Francisco, California); and anti –IGF-1 (5 μg/mL; R &D Systems, Inc, Lille, France). Negative controls were obtained with a mouse monoclonal IgG1 κ isotype control (DakoCytomation, Trappes, France). Immunohistochemistry slides were observed under a modular universal research microscope (Aristoplan; Leica Microsystems, Wetzlar, Germany), and photographs were taken with a digital single-lens reflex camera (D70S; Nikon, Inc, Melville, New York). The presence of staining was assessed within the epidermis. For each marker, the epidermal protein level on the slide was determined by the addition of 3 subscores for the basal layer, spinous layer, and granulose layer/stratum corneum. Each subscore was evaluated on a 5-point scale: null (0), very weak (1), weak (2), moderate (3), strong (4), and very strong (5). Thus, the maximum score for a slide was 15. Two different examiners (B.D. and A.-C.K.) viewed the slides in a blinded reading.